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Fluid-Feeding Insects

The snakeweed leafhopper Empoasca bitubera feeds on snakeweed during its entire life cycle. Although many leafhoppers transmit plant pathogens, no disease has so far been associated with this insect.

One of the major enemies of the snakeweed leafhopper is this dryinid wasp, which caused tumor-like growths in the abdomen.

Another leafhopper that feeds on woody snakeweeds is Gyponana delta. However, this species seems to feed on snakeweed only during its late instar nymphal and adult stages. It is also attacked by a dryinid wasp.

Several leafhoppers that are commonly collected on snakeweed, such as Cuerna arida, probably do not feed on it, but on associated plants.

Mealybugs of several families are common on snakeweed and may weaken the plant.

Spittle bugs are occasionally common on snakeweed, but seem to do relatively little damage.