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Taxonomic Section

Mygalomorphae

(Orthognatha)

The mygalomorphs are among the most "primitive" of the spiders, and include the trapdoor spiders (Ctenizidae), funnelweb tarantulas (Dipluridae) and tarantulas or bird spiders (Theraphosidae). The name tarantula, which is often used for the theraphosids, comes from the term used by the Italian sailors under Columbus and later explorers for the large wolf spiders found in southern Italy. The theraphosids are not closely related to the wolf spiders (aside from both being spiders) and so the term was a generic one for spiders of large size.

ANTRODIAETIDAE (2 species)

Aliatypus isolatus Coyle (Folding-door tarantula)

Size: About 10 mm
General Distribution: Mountains of northern and east-central Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Coconino, Pima
Habitat: Forest at high elevations
Adults Collected: March and August
Notes: A typical trap-door building spider
Records: Coyle 1974
Reference: Coyle 1974

Antrodiaetus apachecus Coyle (Folding-door tarantula)
Size: About 10 mm
General Distribution: Mountains of eastern Arizona and western New Mexico
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Apache, Cochise, Coconino, Graham, Navajo; NM: Sandoval
Habitat: Forest at high elevations
Adults Collected: July-September
Notes: Lives in a silk lined burrow with flexible collar that is collapsed inward
Collar covered with pine needles, twigs, moss, etc.
Records: Coyle 1971, Roth 1996
Reference: Coyle 1971, Roth 1996

MECICOBOTHRIDAE (2 species)

Hexurella apachea Gertsch & Platnick

Size: 3.3 mm
General Distribution: Southeast Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Cochise, Santa Cruz
Habitat: Detritus under oak trees
Adults Collected: March-May
Notes: Tiny mygalomorphs with very long spinnerets
Records: Gertsch & Platnick 1979, Roth 1996
Reference: Gertsch & Platnick 1979, Roth 1996

Hexurella pinea Gertsch & Platnick

Size: 2.5-3.5 mm
General Distribution: West central Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Yavapai
Habitat: Funnel webs in duff of ponderosa pine
Adults Collected: May
Notes: Tiny mygalomorphs with very long spinnerets
Records: Gertsch & Platnick 1979
Reference: Gertsch & Platnick 1979

DIPLURIDAE (3 species)

Euagrus chisoseus Gertsch [= E. ravenus Gertsch & Mulaik, E. apacheus Gertsch & Mulaik, E. ritaensis Chamberlin & Ivie]
Size: ca. 10 mm. as adults
General Distribution: Texas to SE Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Cochise, Pima, Santa Cruz; NM: Eddy, Hidalgo; TX: Brewster, Culberson, Jeff Davis, Terrell
Habitat: Funnel webs under rocks in riparian areas
Adults Collected: March-November
Notes: Medium small mygalomorph with long spinnerets
Records: Beatty 1961, Coyle 1988, Roth 1996, specimens from Eddy and Hidalgo Counties, NM in NMSU collection
Reference: Beatty 1961, Coyle 1988, Roth 1996


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Euagrus comstocki Gertsch

Size: ca. 10 mm. as adults
General Distribution: Texas
Distribution in Area Covered: TX: Terrell
Habitat: Funnel webs under rocks in riparian areas
Adults Collected:
Notes: Medium small mygalomorph with long spinnerets
Records: Texas A & M University
Reference: Coyle 1988

Euagrus rothi  Coyle

Size: ca. 10 mm as adults
General Distribution: Baboquivari Mts. of Pima Co., Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Pima
Habitat: Probably as in E. chisoeus, funnel webs under rocks in riparian areas
Adults Collected: June to October
Notes: Medium small mygalomorph with long spinnerets
Records: Coyle 1988
Reference: Coyle 1988

EUCTENIZIDAE (2 species) (Cyrtaucheniidae)

Eutychides arizonicus (Gertsch & Wallace) [= Actinoxia a.]

Size: ca.10 mm
General Distribution: Arizona, New Mexico and Texas
Distribution in Area Covered: NM: Lincoln; TX: Brewster
Habitat: Not known
Adults Collected:
Notes:
Records: Gertsch & Riechert 1976, Texas A & M
Reference: Gertsch & Wallace 1936, Gertsch & Riechert 1976, Bond et al. 2012

Neoapachella rothi Bond & Opell

Size: ca. 10 mm
General Distribution: New Mexico, Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: NM: Cibola
Habitat: Subalpine grassland at 11,300
Adults Collected: July-August
Notes: This appears to be the highest elevation where members of this family have been collected
Records: Bond & Opell 2002, NMSU collection
Reference: Bond & Opell 2002, Bond et al. 2012

CTENIZIDAE (2 species)

Ummidia modesta   (Banks)

Size: ca. 10 mm
General Distribution: New Mexico
Distribution in Area Covered: NM
Habitat: Not known
Adults Collected:
Notes:
Records: Not available
Reference: Petrunkevitch 1939

Ummidia   sp.

Size: ca. 10 mm
General Distribution: Southeastern Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Santa Cruz
Habitat: bajada in pinyon-juniper woodland
Adults Collected: Summer
Notes: Found with tube through cow pie
Records: Female from Huachuca Mountains; specimen in FSCA
Reference: None published

THERAPHOSIDAE (22 species)

The Theraphosidae contain the spiders most commonly referred to as "tarantulas". These are very large, hairy spiders, commonly seen crossing roads (males) in late summer and autumn. The family is still poorly known, despite the interest shown in them in the exotic pet trade, because they have few good morphological characters to use for taxonomic purposes. Cooke et al. (1972) tried to utilize the urticating hairs (observable as a patch on the dorsal posterior area of the abdomen) for taxonomic work, but they were only of limited use. Smith (1994) published a book on North American tarantulas. Unfortunately this book, while an impressive effort, does not solve the problems and may, in fact, cause a few more because of lack of study of series of specimens or a complete search of the literature. Roth lists four undescribed species (pers. comm.) as occurring in the Chiricahua Mountains, noting that two of them may have been described by Smith (1995), but they cannot be determined based on those descriptions.

Aphonopelma apacheum  Chamberlin

Size: Male 45 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Pima
Habitat: Desert scrub
Adults Collected: July
Notes:
Records: Chamberlin 1940, Smith 1994
Reference: Chamberlin 1940, Smith 1994

Aphonopelma behlei  Chamberlin

Size: Male 30 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona and New Mexico
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Coconino; NM: San Juan
Habitat: High desert, blackbrush vegetation on virgin ungrazed region and pinyon-juniper woodland- to 7,000 ft
Adults Collected: September
Notes:
Records: Chamberlin 1940, Smith 1994
Reference: Chamberlin 1940, Smith 1994

Aphonopelma chalcodes  Chamberlin

Size: Male 55 mm, female 62 mm
General Distribution: Southern Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Cochise, Pima
Habitat: Sonoran Desert
Adults Collected: July-August
Notes: Collected at 2300-4500' in the Santa Catalina Mountains by Beatty (1961)
Records: Chamberlin 1940, Beatty 1961, Smith 1994
Reference: Chamberlin 1940, Beatty 1961, Smith 1994


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Aphonopelma echinum  (Chamberlin) [= Dugesiella echina]

Size: 40 mm
General Distribution: Arkansas River Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas
Distribution in Area Covered: NM: Lincoln; TX: Brewster, Presido
Habitat: Juniper-pinyon woodland and dry grassland
Adults Collected: November
Notes: Smith calls this species A. echinum and restricts it to the Arkansas River Valley and part of Colorado
Records: Gertsch & Riechert 1976, Smith 1994, Dean 1996, Texas A & M collection
Reference: Gertsch & Riechert 1976, Smith 1994, Dean 1996

Aphonopelma gabeli  Smith

Size: Male 38 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Cochise, Pima
Habitat: Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts
Adults Collected: July
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
Reference: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma hentzi  (Girard) [= Dugesiella hentzi ]

Size: Male 35 mm, female 51 mm
General Distribution: Louisiana N. to Kansas and W. to Arizona and Texas
Distribution in Area Covered: NM: Lincoln
Habitat: Lava beds
Adults Collected: August
Notes: Record of later maturing male collected as subadult on July 16, 1991, from Valley of Fires St. Pk., identified by Rick West
Smith restricts this species to Oklahoma; West has also identified this as common Kansas species
Records: Rick West
Reference: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma jungi   Smith

Size: Male 38 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Cochise; NM: Hidalgo
Habitat: Chihuahuan desert at base of Chiricahua Mts.
Adults Collected: August
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
Reference: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma lithodomum  Chamberlin

Size: Male 32 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Northern Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Coconino (House Rock)?
Habitat: Great Basin sage brush and shrub pine juniper woodland
Adults Collected: September
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
Reference: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma marxi   (Simon)

Size: Male 20 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Utah and Colorado S. to California and Texas?
Distribution in Area Covered: NM: Sandoval?
Habitat:
Adults Collected:
Notes: Smith does not think that the New Mexico record is valid; type apparently lost; description inadequate for determination
Records: Smith 1994
Reference: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma minchi   Smith

Size: Male 53 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Maricopa
Habitat: Sonoran Desert bajada
Adults Collected: Mid-August
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
Reference: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma paloma    (Prentice) [= Apachepelma paloma ]

Size: Male 14.5 mm, female 16.2 mm
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Pinal
Habitat: Sonoran Desert bajada with creosote, saguaro, ocotillo and palo verde scrub
Adults Collected: November
Notes: This is the smallest known U. S. species in the genus
Records: Prentice 1992, Smith 1994
Reference: Prentice 1992, Smith 1994

Aphonopelma phasmus   (Chamberlin)

Size: Male 24 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Coconino
Habitat: Pristine range in Grand Canyon National Park
Adults Collected: July-August
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
References: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma punzoi   Smith

Size: Male 36 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Graham
Habitat: Transition between Chihuahuan and Sonoran Deserts- pristine range, blackbrush habitat
Adults Collected: Mid-August
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
References: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma rothi   Smith

Size: Male 44 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: SE "Apache Trail"
Habitat: Sonoran Desert
Adults Collected: March
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
References: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma rusticum    (Simon)

Size: Male 41 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona S. into Mexico
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Yuma?
Habitat: Mexican central Gulf Coast scrubland
Adults Collected:
Notes: Smith does not think that this species is found in the United States
Records: Roth?
References: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma schmidti   Smith

Size: Male 43 mm, female 61 mm
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Pinal, Florence Junction
Habitat: Upper bajada Sonoran Desert
Adults Collected: August
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
References: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma simulatum   Chamberlin & Ivie

Size: Male 20 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Utah and New Mexico?
Distribution in Area Covered: NM: Sandoval
Habitat: Pinyon-juniper woodland and grassland
Adults Collected: July
Notes: Smith does not think that this species is found in New Mexico, he records this only from the Colorado-Utah border
Records: Smith 1994
Reference: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma stahnkei   Smith

Size: Male 54 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Maricopa
Habitat: Sonoran Desert
Adults Collected:
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
Reference: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma steindachneri   (Ausserer)

Size: Male 39 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Utah S. to New Mexico and Texas
Distribution in Area Covered: NM: Eddy?; TX: Brewster, Pecos
Habitat: Desert grassland
Adults Collected:
Notes: Smith believes locality should be Pecos River, New Mexico
Records: Vogel 1970, Smith 1994, Dean 1996
Reference: Vogel 1970, Smith 1994, Dean 1996

Aphonopelma vogelae   Smith

Size: Male 26 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Utah S. to New Mexico and Texas
Distribution in Area Covered: NM: San Juan
Habitat: Pinus ponderosa and Quercus gambeli woodland
Adults Collected: October
Notes:
Records: Smith 1994
Reference: Smith 1994

Aphonopelma vorhiesi    Chamberlin & Ivie

Size: Male 28 mm, female unknown
General Distribution: Arizona
Distribution in Area Covered: AZ: Pima
Habitat: Sonoran desert
Adults Collected:
Notes: Collected at 3500-7600' in Santa Catalina Mountains by Beatty (1961)
Records: Beatty 1961, Smith 1994
Reference: Beatty 1961, Smith 1994

Aphonopelma sp.

Size: General Distribution: SW New Mexico
Distribution in Area Covered: NM: Hidalgo
Habitat: Riparian woodland
Adults Collected:
Notes: Collected at 6000' in Peloncillo Mountains
Records: NMSU Arthropod Museum, University of California-Riverside
Reference:


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