NE 1020 Progress Report
Report of Cooperative Regional Project, NE -1020: Multi-State Evaluation of Winegrape Cultivars and Clones Trial 2011 – 2012.
Design and Functionality of a Wine Tasting Room
While wineries focus on production, the aesthetics and marketing of a tasting room can play a huge role in connecting with and creating an inviting experience for your customers. Wine tastings are captivating for educated and amateur wine tasters alike. The goal is to give enthusiasts the chance to sample a variety of wines in a class or more relaxed gathering, with a focus on the customer's overall experience. In the wine tourism industry, it is important to remember that this should be a fun, hands-on adventure for customers, with the goal of customers purchasing different varieties of wine and developing brand awareness for your winery. Elements of a functional, appealing, and successful tasting room include the marketing, infrastructure, personnel, and customer's experience. This guide will highlight key components of establishing a functional tasting room. Figure 1 shows the main points that will be discussed. .
Wine Grape Cultivar Performance in the Four Corners Region of New Mexico in 2010-12.
A renaissance in locally produced, locally branded foods is occurring in the Four Corners region, that portion of the southwestern United States where the state boundaries of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah converge. Growers again view fruit crops, including wine grape, as a profitable specialty crop to propel a local agricultural/tourism economy.
Managing Weeds in Grapes in New Mexico
Weeds compete with grapevines for resources such as water, nutrients, and light. However, the intensity of this competition varies during the lifecycle of the grapevines and is more significant during the early stages of vineyard establishment. This significant competition from weeds in the early stages of vineyard life is due to (a) limited root development and (b) limited vegetative growth of the vines. Weeds' competition with vines for water and nutrients is most severe when vines' root systems are shallow and not well developed. At the same time, newly planted vines, due to their smaller size, can be overgrown by tall weeds such as Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), kochia (Kochia scoparia), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), and many others, which reduces the development of young vines. Some weed species can also directly reduce the vines' growth and development by releasing growth-retarding allelopathic chemicals. Weeds can also indirectly affect the grapevine by serving as an alternative host for pests and diseases. Furthermore, weeds that grow around the grapevine trunk can provide a habitat for rodents that can damage the trunks and/or the roots, thus reducing the growth and production of vines. Therefore, successful weed management in vineyards will significantly improve grapevine establishment and grape production.
Managing Grape Leafhoppers on New Mexico Grape Vines
Nymphs and adults of the leafhopper genus Erythroneura are occasionally serious pests that feed and reproduce on backyard and commercial grapes throughout New Mexico. By mid-summer, affected foliage is increasingly dotted with tiny white feeding marks made by nymphs and adult leafhoppers. Serious, persistent infestations may reduce photosynthesis, cause defoliation and losses in fruit quality and quantity, and even affect vine productivity the following year. Additionally, they can make fruit susceptible to other damaging insects. High populations of grape leafhoppers can be major annoyances for field workers, especially during grape harvest.
Grape Powdery Mildew
Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. Uncinula necator), is one of the most prevalent and easily recognized plant diseases afflicting grape vines in New Mexico. It appears as a dusty white-gray or greenish-white coating on leaf surfaces or other above-ground plant parts. The disease is most commonly observed on the upper surfaces of leaves, but can also affect the lower leaf surface, young stems, buds, flowers, canes, and young fruit. Severely infected leaves may exhibit mottling or deformity, including leaf curling and withering. Infected fruit turn grayish-white at first and ultimately exhibit a brown russeted appearance. Infected fruit may crack, shrivel, or drop from clusters).
Soil Sampling With Respect to Salinity in New Mexico Vineyards
Excessive soil salinity, which is related to the amount of soluble salts present in the soil, can be a serious yield-limiting factor in New Mexico vineyards. It is therefore important that grape growers monitor soil salinity levels to prevent yield and quality loss. Soil salinity is a concern in vineyards due to grapes moderate sensitivity to saline environments.
Trellis End Post Assembly Designs for Vineyards
Proper construction and installation of the vineyard trellis are important components in the establishment and success of a vineyard. The trellis is the main support structure of grape vines in the vineyard; it must be sturdy enough to support canopy and wind loads that exert forces on the catch and cordon wires,line posts, and end assemblies. The vineyard trellis, and especially the end post assembly, must be properly constructed to support canopy and wind loads. The mechanics of the end post assembly involve simple physics. Cordon and catch wires support the grape vines. The end post assemblies at the end of each row anchor these wires. The weight from the vines and fruit exert a downward force (tension) on the wires. Tension from the trellis wires transfers to the end posts. This force, along with resistance between the end post and the soil, keeps the post in place and prevents the trellis wires from sagging. Improperly installed end posts can bend and/or pull through the soil, causing the trellis wires to sag.