NMSU: 1999 New Mexico Alfalfa Variety Test Report
NMSU branding

The 1999 New Mexico Alfalfa Variety Test Report


Research Report 741
L.M. Lauriault, Forage Agronomist, NMSU Agricultural Science Center at Tucumcari
I.A. Ray, Alfalfa Breeder, NMSU, Las Cruces
R.D. Baker, Superintendent, NMSU Agricultural Science Center at Clovis
C.E. Barnes, Superintendent Emeritus, NMSU Agricultural Science Center at Artesia
L.M. English, Superintendent, NMSU Agricultural Science Center at Los Lunas
C. Owen, Research Assistant, NMSU Agricultural Science Center at Farmington
College of Agriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences New Mexico State University


Summary

Consistently high alfalfa yields are the result of selecting a good variety and implementating good management techniques. Soil fertility should be maintained at recommended levels based on soil tests, and weeds and insects should be controlled using appropriate cultural and/or chemical methods. For dormant (FD 1 to 3) and semidormant (FD 4 to 6) varieties, a 7–week rest period before a dormancy inducing freeze (27° F) is recommended to allow the plant to replenish root reserves for winter survival and initiate of spring growth, after which harvesting may be done either mechanically or by grazing. Harvesting established stands at early bloom will result in 4 to 5 cuttings per year before the rest period begins in most areas of New Mexico. For further information about alfalfa management, refer to the New Mexico State University Cooperative Extension Service publications listed in table 10.


Introduction

In 1999 there were 290,000 acres of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in production in New Mexico. An estimated 1.5 million tons of hay were harvested from this acreage at an average of $116/ton. Gross returns totaled nearly $175 million, making alfalfa hay New Mexico’s No. 1 cash crop (New Mexico Agricultural Statistics Service Weekly AgUpdate, Issue 50-07). Alfalfa is the legume of choice in irrigated perennial pastures as well. Choosing a good alfalfa variety is a key step in establishing a highly productive alfalfa stand whether for hay or pasture. Differences between the highest and lowest yielding varieties in tests included in this report ranged from 0.62 to 2.21 tons per acre in 1999. If sold as hay, this translates to a difference in returns of $72 to $256 peracre due to variety. In addition, stand longevity, as affected by winter hardiness and pest resistance, is partially determined by variety.

This report provides current yield data on alfalfa varieties included in yield trials in New Mexico, as well as guidelines for variety selection.

Considerations in Selecting an Alfalfa Variety

Local Adaptation and Persistence

High yields in variety tests over a range of years and locations within a region are the best indication that a variety is locally adapted and persistent. In addition to personal observations, New Mexico alfalfa producers are encouraged to select varieties based on information collected from trials conducted at New Mexico State University agricultural science centers located throughout the state. Since these tests are conducted by the university, they are independent of any company bias. Look first at data collected from the agricultural science center(s) closest to you. For your convenience, data from the centers are grouped by similarity of latitude and elevation, which will affect winter hardiness and thus, yield and persistence. Persistence—the ability of individual plants to survive field conditions over time—is strongly influenced by winter hardiness, harvest frequency, and pest resistance. Higher persistence will permit a longer economical stand life, allowing more time to recover establishment costs. Alfalfa stands should be replaced when there are less than 5 plants (or 40 stems) per square foot. Producers should rotate to another irrigated crop for at least 1 year before reseeding alfalfa into the same field to avoid seedling death due to autotoxicity. If stand life expectancy is only 3 to 4 years, as would be the case in a crop rotation system, higher yields in those early years are more important than persistence.

Winter Hardiness

Alfalfa’s winter hardiness is determined by its ability to survive cold temperatures. A good indication of winter hardiness is given by the fall dormancy rating (FD), which indicates the variety’s tendency to stop growing in the fall. Fall dormancy categories range from 1 (very dormant) to 9 (nondormant). The more dormant (FD 1 to 3) varieties will be slower to “green up” in the spring and quicker to stop growing in the fall, regardless of local climate. This will have an impact on yield in areas with warmer climates. Additionally, nondormant varieties (FD 7 to 9) will yield more because of earlier spring “green up” and later fall production, but they may not survive severe winters. These varieties may be suitable for use in a short-term rotation system where alfalfa is used for 4 years or less. Otherwise, producers should select varieties with sufficient dormancy to survive winter conditions at their location, while optimizing forage production during the growing season.

Disease Resistance

In New Mexico, alfalfa producers should select adapted varieties that have the highest available resistance, preferably moderate resistance (MR) or greater rating to bacterial wilt (Bw), fusarium wilt (Fw), Phytophthora root rot (PRR), and anthracnose (An) (Alfalfa Analyst, Certified Alfalfa Seed Council).

Bacterial and fusarium wilt are infections of the water-conducting tissues of alfalfa’s roots that do not cause any noticeable root rot. These diseases prevent water flow to leaves, resulting in wilting of shoots and the eventual death of infected plants. Roots infected with bacterial wilt often will have a yellowish-brown discoloration of the taproots’s inner woody cylinder. Fusarium infection can be recognized by brown to red streaks in the taproot’s inner woody cylinder.

Phytophthora root rot is a fungal disease associated with excessive soil moisture. This disease causes yellowish to brown areas on roots and crowns that eventually become black and rotten. The top growth of infected plants appears stunted and yellow.

Anthracnose, also caused by a fungus, attacks alfalfa stems, preventing water flow to the rest of the shoot and causing sudden wilting. These wilted shoots have a characteristic “shepherd’s crook” appearance. Anthracnose can cause a bluish-black crown rot as well.

There are many other diseases of alfalfa that occur in New Mexico to which resistance has not yet been developed. The best protection against these diseases is proper management. But as any producer knows, even that at times is not sufficient.

Insect Resistance

There are many insects that feed on alfalfa. Currently, the most detrimental insects to alfalfa production in New Mexico for which varietal resistance is available include spotted alfalfa aphid (SAA), pea aphid (PA), and blue alfalfa aphid (BAA). As with disease resistance, select varieties having at least an MR rating for each of these insects. If a particular insect is not adapted to your area, varieties without resistance may be preferable due to a historical decrease in yield associated with the resistance. Varietal resistance to other insects, such as alfalfa weevil and potato leafhopper may be available in the near future. However, historic resistance has not protected the plant, but rather masked the symptoms. Currently, the best protection against those insect pests is through good harvest management or proper pesticide use. Pesticide use may be necessary even with resistant varieties, when pest pressure is excessive.

Seed Quality

Selecting an alfalfa variety based on seed cost is like playing Russian roulette. Seed labeled as “common,” “variety not stated”, or “variety unknown” are of unknown genetic background and may or may not be locally adapted or have necessary disease or insect resistance. To assure a long-lasting, highly productive stand, buy either certified or Plant Variety Protected (PVP) seed, which will guarantee that the genetics and performance you are paying for are in the bag. Look for the blue tag, which must be attached to all bags of certified seed or look for PVP labeling, which is the proprietor’s guarantee. Regardless of the variety, be sure to read the seed tag, which gives other important information about the particular seed you are buying, including: purity, amounts of other crop and weed seed (as well as listing the species and number of any noxious weed seed present), germination, and the test date, which should be within the previous 9 months to accurately reflect the germination. Order seed well in advance of planting time to assure that it will be available when needed.

Forage Quality

High quality alfalfa hay possesses the following characteristics: >19% crude protein, <31% acid detergent fiber, <40% neutral detergent fiber, leafiness, and free of foreign material. Varietal differences in quality are relatively small compared to other factors. Cultural and management practices, such soil fertility, irrigation, weed and insect control, maturity at cutting, baling, and storage conditions, are major factors affecting alfalfa quality. The optimum balance between forage yield and quality occurs at 1–10% bloom. Harvesting at prebloom increases quality but sacrifices yield. Continually harvesting at prebloom reduces stand life, because the plant is not able to replenish root reserves for subsequent growth and overwintering. Since some hay buyers specify prebloom, producers must weigh price against decreased yields and stand life. Prebloom harvests in the middle cuttings are likely to be less detrimental to stand life than the first and last cuttings of any given year. Cutting at >10% bloom increases yield, but quality declines rapidly as fiber increases and mineral content decreases (Alfalfa for Dairy Animals, Certified Alfalfa Seed Council). Leaf retention, affected by insect feeding, maturity (as the plant matures the lower leaves drop), and baling, is important because the digestibility and nutrient content in leaves is greater than in stems.

Description of Tests

Replicated alfalfa variety tests included in this report were conducted under research controls at the NMSU’s agricultural science centers at Artesia (sown in 1996), Clovis (1997), Tucumcari (1997), Los Lunas (1996), and Farmington (1996). Weather data for 1997 to 1999 and the long-term averages from these locations are presented (table 1). Total annual yields of each variety tested are given (tables 2–8) for each production year as well as the average annual production. Management information pertinent to individual trials are given at the bottom of the data table for each test. Statistical analyses were performed on all alfalfa yield data (including experimentals) to determine if the apparent differences are truly due to variety or just due to chance (Agrobase). The variety with the highest numerical yield in each column is marked with two asterisks (**), and those varieties not significantly different from that variety are marked with one asterisk (*). To determine if two varieties are truly different, compare the difference between the two varieties to the Least Significant Difference (LSD) at the bottom of the column. If the difference is equal to or greater than the LSD, the varieties are truly different in yield when grown under the conditions at a given location. The Coefficient of Variation (CV), which is a measure of the data’s variability, is included for each column of means. Low variability (<20%) is desirable and increased variability within a study results in higher CVs and larger LSDs. Table 9 summarizes information about proprietors, fall dormancy, pest resistance, and yield performance across years and locations for all varieties currently included in the New Mexico State University Alfalfa Variety Testing Program. Varieties are listed by alphabetical order within fall dormancy. Shaded areas indicate that the variety was not in that particular test (labeled at the top of the column), while clear blocks mean that the variety was in the test. As before, a double asterisk (**) indicates that the variety was the highest yielding variety in the test for that year and a single asterisk (*) means that the variety was not significantly different from the highest yielding variety based on the 5% LSD. It is best to choose a variety that has performed well over several years and locations as indicated by the asterisks. Tests are grouped by location, and locations are grouped by similarity in elevation and latitude within New Mexico.

Table 1. Temperature and precipitation data for 1997 to 1999 and the long-term averages for the New Mexico Alfalfa Variety Test locations.
Click here to view larger (will open in another page).

Table 1.

Table 2. Total annual dry matter yields (tons/acre) of alfalfa varieties sown in September 1996, at NMSU’s Agricultural Science Center at Artesia.

Variety FD 1997 1998 1999 Average
6B77 6 10.10** 9.79** 8.42* 9.44**
Parade 7 9.83* 9.66* 8.53* 9.34*
Monsanto 166 6 10.03* 9.35* 8.62* 9.33*
Rio 7 9.98* 9.11* 8.49* 9.19*
C/W 4791 7 9.98* 8.86* 8.64** 9.16*
5681 6 10.05* 8.96* 8.41* 9.14*
LM 459 5 9.56* 9.22* 8.47* 9.09*
C/W 4692 6 9.53* 9.47* 8.08* 9.02*
C/W 4598 6 9.80* 9.06* 8.10* 8.99*
Pecos 7 9.47* 8.79* 8.52* 8.93*
C/W 46106 7 9.74* 9.19* 7.66 8.86*
5715 8 9.45* 8.57* 8.57* 8.86*
LM 455 6 9.33 8.87* 8.33* 8.84*
WL414 7 8.88 9.46* 8.10* 8.81*
ABI9193 8 9.04 8.89* 8.34* 8.76*
WL525HQ 8 9.07 8.55* 8.17* 8.59
5939 9 8.55 8.33* 8.06* 8.31
WL325HQ 3 8.40 8.51* 7.46 8.12
Salado 9 7.87 8.48* 7.08 7.81
Mean   9.38 9.01 8.21 8.85
CV, %   5.21 10.47 6.18 9.16
LSD0.05   0.69 ns 0.72 0.66
Harvest dates:
    1997: 30 Apr, 28 May, 23 Jun, 21 Jul, 29 Aug, and 1 Oct.
    1998: 13 Apr, 4 Jun, 30 Jun, 25 Jul, 25 Aug, and 28 Sep.
    1999: 7 May, 8 Jun, 6 Jul, 5 Aug, 7 Sep, and 22 Oct.
**Highest numerical value in the column.
*Not significantly different from the highest numerical value in the column based on
    the 5% level of significance.
LSD0.05 stands for the Least Significant Difference at the 5% level. If the difference
    between two numbers within a column is equal to or greater than the LSD0.05, then
    we are 95% certain that they are truly different.
ns means that there are no significant differences between the varieties at the 5% level.
Notes:
    -Soil type was Reagan Loam.
    -The test was irrigated by sprinkler.

Table 3. Total annual dry matter yields (tons/acre) of fully irrigated alfalfa varieties sown 19 March 1997, at NMSU’s Agricultural Science Center at Clovis.

Variety FD 1998 1999 Average
Jade II 4 6.43* 6.49** 6.46**
6B77 6 6.49** 6.28* 6.38*
Monsanto 133 4 6.25* 6.26* 6.26*
5681 6 6.32* 6.18* 6.25*
Rio 7 6.17* 6.07 6.12*
5396 4 5.95 6.20* 6.08
LM 455 6 6.17* 5.96 6.06
Wl325HQ 3 6.01 6.05 6.03
5454 4 6.00 6.04 6.02
Parade 7 6.18* 5.82 6.00
LM 459 5 5.99 5.86 5.93
WL414 6 5.83 5.74 5.78
Mean   6.15 6.08 6.11
CV, %   5.85 5.25 8.18
LSD0.05   0.36 0.32 0.36
Harvest dates:
    1998: 18 May, 23 Jun, 23 Jul, 27 Aug, and 7 Oct.
    1999: 4 Jun, 9 Jul, 19 Aug, and 23 Sep.
**Highest numerical value in the column.
*Not significantly different from the highest numerical value in the column based on
    the 5% level of significance.
LSD0.05 stands for the Least Significant Difference at the 5% level. If the difference
    between two numbers within a column is equal to or greater than the LSD0.05, then
    we are 95% certain that they are truly different.
ns means that there are no significant differences between the varieties at the 5% level.
Notes:
    -Soil type was Olton Silt Loam.
    -The test was under drip irrigation.

Table 4. Total annual dry matter yields (tons/acre) of alfalfa varieties receiving limited irrigation sown 19 March 1997, at NMSU’s Agricultural Science Center at Clovis.

Variety FD 1998 1999 Average
Monsanto 133 4 6.21* 6.75** 6.48**
5396 4 6.10* 6.70* 6.40*
Jade II 4 6.24** 6.51* 6.38*
Rio 7 6.20* 6.52* 6.36*
6B77 6 6.21* 6.50* 6.35*
LM 459 6 6.08* 6.44* 6.26*
LM 459 5 6.13* 6.34 6.23*
5681 6 6.05* 6.38 6.22*
Parade 7 5.96* 6.32 6.14
5454 4 5.76 6.45* 6.10
WL325HQ 3 5.85 6.28 6.06
WL525HQ 8 5.72 5.94 5.83
Mean   6.04 6.43 6.23
CV, %   5.71 5.17 6.53
LSD0.05   0.34 0.33 0.29
Harvest dates:
    1998: 18 May, 23 Jun, 23 Jul, 27 Aug, and 7 Oct.
    1999: 4 Jun, 9 Jul, 19 Aug, and 23 Sep.
**Highest numerical value in the column.
*Not significantly different from the highest numerical value in the column based on
    the 5% level of significance.
LSD0.05 stands for the Least Significant Difference at the 5% level. If the difference
    between two numbers within a column is equal to or greater than the LSD0.05, then
    we are 95% certain that they are truly different.
ns means that there are no significant differences between the varieties at the 5% level.
Notes:
    -Soil type was Olton Silt Loam.
    -The test was under drip irrigation at the half rate of the test described in table 3.

Table 5. Total annual dry matter yields (tons/acre) of alfalfa varieties of different fall dormancy categories sown 30 April 1997, at NMSU’s Agricultural Science Center at Tucumcari.

Variety FD 1997 1998 1999 Average
Signal 7000 7 4.36** 8.76* 8.09* 7.07**
Wilson 6 3.76 8.78** 8.67** 7.07**
Dona-Ana 7 4.22* 8.49* 8.22* 6.97*
Tahoe 6 4.13* 8.68* 7.93 6.91*
Landmark 4 3.45 8.73* 8.40* 6.86*
13R-Supreme 8 3.78 8.22* 8.54* 6.85*
WL612 9 3.85 8.19* 8.20* 6.75*
WL525HQ 8 3.94* 8.02 8.26* 6.74*
Archer 5 3.60 8.56* 7.96 6.71*
Jade II 4 3.48 8.66* 7.92 6.69*
Salado 9 4.06* 8.14* 7.59 6.59*
Baralfa54 5 3.24 8.15* 7.61 6.33*
Viking I 2 3.48 7.92 7.55 6.32*
Garst645 3 3.09 7.65 7.75 6.17
Rainier 3 3.29 7.80 7.23 6.12
Monsanto 127 3 3.11 7.56 7.48 6.05
Mean   3.68 8.27 7.96 6.64
CV, %   12.08 8.08 7.33 14.45
LSD0.05   0.44 0.66 0.58 0.79
Harvest dates:
    1997: 21 Jul, 8 Aug, 16 Sep, and 28 Oct.
    1998: 12 May, 16 Jun, 21 Jul, 17 Aug, 15 Sep, and 29 Oct.
    1999: 21 May, 16 Jun, 13 Jul, 11 Aug, 9 Sep, and 25 Oct.
**Highest numerical value in the column.
*Not significantly different from the highest numerical value in the column based on
    the 5% level of significance.
LSD0.05 stands for the Least Significant Difference at the 5% level. If the difference
    between two numbers within a column is equal to or greater than the LSD0.05, then
    we are 95% certain that they are truly different.
ns means that there are no significant differences between the varieties at the 5% level.
Notes:
    -Soil type was Canez Fine Sandy Loam.
    -The test was furrow irrigated.

Table 6. Total dry matter yields for 1999 (tons/acre) of alfalfa varieties sown in different soil moisture constraints on 19 September 1997, at NMSU’s Agricultural Science Center at Tucumcari.

Variety FD Standard
Irrigation
Dryland Winter
Irrigation
Poorly Drained/
High Salt
OK49 5 5.08** 1.73* 8.17* 3.72*
Salado 9 4.37* 1.78** 7.58* 4.15**
Supercuts 4 3.97 1.14* 7.42* 2.97
ABT405 4 3.90 0.86 5.96* 2.75
AmeriGraze 401+Z 4 3.21 1.41* 7.65* 3.00
CO Common ? 3.18 1.40* 8.22** 2.90
AlfaGraze 2 3.04 0.90 7.65* 2.83
Mean   3.82 1.32 7.52 3.19
CV, %   19.59 33.85 16.75 16.70
LSD0.05   1.11 0.66 ns 0.79
Harvest dates:
    1999: 21 May, 16 Jun, 13 Jul, 11 Aug, 9 Sep, and 25 Oct.
**Highest numerical value in the column.
*Not significantly different from the highest numerical value in the column based on
    the 5% level of significance.
LSD0.05 stands for the Least Significant Difference at the 5% level. If the difference
    between two numbers within a column is equal to or greater than the LSD0.05, then
    we are 95% certain that they are truly different.
ns means that there are no significant differences between the varieties at the 5% level.
Notes:
    -Typical irrigation study:
        Soil types are Canez and Quay Fine Sandy Loams.
        The test was furrow irrigated once for each harvest
    -Dryland study:
        Soil type is Quay Fine Sandy Loam.
        The test was furrow irrigated once after seeding.
    -Winter irrigation study:
        Soil type is Canez Fine Sandy Loam.
        The test was furrow irrigated once for each harvest and monthly during
             the winter (1-Nov to 1-Apr).
    -Poorly drained/high salt study:
        Located in a tail water area draining 36 ha.
        Soil type is Canez Fine Sandy Loam, Calcereous Variant (impermeable caliche
            layer at 60–90 cm, causing poor drainage) having a Na content of >700 ppm in
            the surface 15 cm.
        Irrigations, by furrow, were applied as needed to maintain wet soil conditions.

Table 7. Total annual dry matter yields (tons/acre) of alfalfa varieties sown 9 September 1996, at NMSU’s Agricultural Science Center at Los Lunas.

Variety FD 1997 1998 1999 Average
Archer 5 6.59** 8.23** 7.86** 7.59**
ABI9252 6 6.11* 8.11* 7.52* 7.22*
6B77 6 6.04* 7.85* 7.31* 7.03*
WL414 6 5.88* 7.68* 7.08* 6.94*
WL235HQ 3 5.76* 7.82* 7.14* 6.86*
Pecos 7 5.67* 7.35* 7.24* 6.77*
Mean   6.01 7.84 7.36 7.07
CV, %   9.26 6.99 6.86 10.57
LSD0.05   ns ns ns ns
Harvest dates:
    1997: 29 May, 27 Jun, 15 Aug, and 27 Sep.
    1998: 19 May, 29 Jun, 1 Aug, 8 Sep, and 12 Oct.
    1999: 1 Jun, 2 Jul, 10 Aug, and 4 Oct.
**Highest numerical value in the column.
*Not significantly different from the highest numerical value in the column based on
    the 5% level of significance.
LSD0.05 stands for the Least Significant Difference at the 5% level. If the difference
    between two numbers within a column is equal to or greater than the LSD0.05, then
    we are 95% certain that they are truly different.
ns means that there are no significant differences between the varieties at the 5% level.
Notes:
    -Soil type was Vinton Loamy Fine Sand.
    -The test was flood irrigated.

Table 8. Total annual dry matter yields (tons/acre) of alfalfa varieties sown 26 August 1996, at NMSU’s Agricultural Science Center at Farmington.

Variety FD 1997 1998 1999 Average
Legend 4 5.13* 6.78** 5.83** 5.92**
Rio 7 5.34** 6.30* 5.67* 5.77*
Monsanto 127 3 5.01* 6.37* 5.87* 5.75*
Rushmore 4 4.62* 6.40* 5.78* 5.60*
Evergreen 6 5.05* 6.22* 5.23* 5.50*
WL324 3 4.48* 6.36* 5.61* 5.48*
C/W 4599 5 4.61* 6.00* 5.61* 5.41*
UN44 4 4.73* 6.16* 5.31* 5.40*
Champ 3 4.52* 6.07* 5.55* 5.38*
Archer 5 4.72* 5.76* 5.56* 5.35*
C/W 4693 6 4.69* 6.16* 5.19* 5.35*
WL325HQ 3 4.59* 5.76* 5.49* 5.28*
330 3 4.36* 5.64* 5.65* 5.22*
Benchmark 3 4.62* 5.36* 5.56* 5.18*
Vernema 4 4.48* 5.66* 5.24* 5.13*
3L171 3 4.69* 5.71* 4.70* 5.04*
Ranger 3 3.87* 5.42* 5.19* 4.83*
Parade 7 4.25* 5.07* 4.86* 4.72*
Mean   4.65 5.96 5.44 5.35
CV, %   14.18 17.55 9.37 19.28
LSD0.05   ns ns ns ns
Harvest dates:
    1997: 3 Jun, 8 Jul, 29 Aug, and 8 Oct.
    1998: 9 Jun, 10 Jul, 12 Aug, and 23 Sep.
    1999: 4 Jun, 7 Jul, 24 Aug, and 4 Oct.
**Highest numerical value in the column.
*Not significantly different from the highest numerical value in the column based on
    the 5% level of significance.
LSD0.05 stands for the Least Significant Difference at the 5% level. If the difference
    between two numbers within a column is equal to or greater than the LSD0.05, then
    we are 95% certain that they are truly different.
ns means that there are no significant differences between the varieties at the 5% level.
Notes:
    -Soil type was Doak Fine Sandy Loam.
    -The test was sprinkler irrigated.

Table 9. Characteristics and performance of alfalfa varieties across years and tests in New Mexico.
Click here to view larger (will open in another page).

Table 9 Part a. Table 9 Part b.

Table 10. New Mexico State University’s Cooperative Extension Service publications related to alfalfa management.

Number Title On-line ?
A-107 Managing saline soils  
A-113 Selection of fertilizers Y
A-114 Test your soil Y
A-122 Soil test interpretations Y
A-123 Sampling for plant tissue analysis  
A-128 Fertilizer guide for New Mexico Y
A-128 Nitrogen fixation by legumes Y
A-130 Inoculation of legumes Y
A-131 Certified seed Y
A-133 Calculating fertilizer costs Y
A-134 Selecting synthetic fertilizers in New Mexico Y
A-18 Micronutrient fertility guide  
A-216 Know what is in a bag of seed Y
A-309 Alfalfa weevil and clover leaf weevil  
A-316 Structure of a hay bale  
A-317 Alfalfa fertilization in New Mexico  
A-318 Reducing alfalfa harvest losses Y
A-325 Managing weeds in alfalfa Y
A-327 Introduction to hay testing Y
A-328 Sampling guidelines for hay testing Y
A-329 Variations in hay grading Y
A-330 Alfalfa growth stages Y
A-331 Alfalfa quality definitions Y
B-115 Balancing forage supply and demand Y
CR-536 Blister beetles in alfalfa Y
HB-11 Suggestions for managing insects in alfalfa 19 and clover 1996  
W-01 Submitting plants for plant tissue analysis  
W-13 Alfalfa disease control  
These publications are available from county Extension offices.
To view publications online, visit aces.nmsu.edu.

To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences on the World Wide Web at aces.nmsu.edu.

Contents of publications may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. For permission to use publications for other purposes, contact pubs@nmsu.edu or the authors listed on the publication.

New Mexico State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and educator. NMSU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.

Printed and electronically distributed August 2000, Las Cruces, NM.