Chemical Weed and Brush Control for New Mexico Rangelands


Circular 597

Revised by Kert Young and Casey Spackman

College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University


Respectively, former Extension Brush and Weed Specialist and Assistant Professor/Extension Range Specialist, Department of Extension Animal Sciences and Natural Resources, New Mexico State University. (Print Friendly PDF)

Noxious woody and weedy plants inhabit much of New Mexico’s rangelands. Dense stands of brush and weeds use vast quantities of water, reduce forage production, and contribute to erosion. If rangelands are to reach their productive potential, noxious plants need to be managed effectively. Herbicides can be effective, economical, and an efficient method for controlling brush and weeds and improving and maintaining rangelands.

This circular lists current herbicides to control woody and herbaceous weeds on rangelands. Herbicide control is highly variable and is dependent on species. However, seldom is a species eradicated. When developing a woody and herbaceous weed management program, consider all possible rangeland uses. Many woody plants and forbs are a valuable source of food and cover for wildlife and can also be important to livestock operations. A woody and herbaceous weed management program should use control methods that provide optimal benefits to all animal species.

Photograph of mesquite brush.

Mesquite brush is a common woody plant found in many parts of New Mexico.

Herbicides are effective and safe when they are used properly (Appendix A). Misuse can result in poor woody and herbaceous weed control, increased expense, and possible hazards from herbicidal drift or residues that damage or kill desirable plants. Use the following guidelines for proper herbicide use:

  • Correctly identify the plant species and evaluate the need for control.
  • Consider the expected benefits and costs of herbicides and alternative control practices, as well as alternative uses of funds.
  • Select and purchase the appropriate herbicide for the plant species.
  • Provide and require proper safety equipment.
  • Calibrate spray equipment to correctly apply the desired rate.
  • Mix herbicides in a well-ventilated area, preferably outside.
  • Spray under conditions that minimize drift.
  • Read and follow instructions on the label.
  • Additional restrictions may be listed on the label.
  • Use adjuvants appropriate to the situation when recommended on the label.
  • Keep a record of the herbicide used, time of application, weather conditions, rate of herbicide applied, date, location, and applicator.

For successful weed control, the correct quantity of herbicide mixture must be applied to a specific area. To calibrate spray equipment, see NMSU Cooperative Extension Service Guide A-613, Sprayer Calibration (https://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_a/A613/welcome.html), on calibrating pesticide applicators. For information about procedures for obtaining a pesticide applicator license and other information about applying herbicides properly, contact your county Extension office (https://aces.nmsu.edu/county/).

The following suggestions for using herbicides are based upon their effectiveness under New Mexico conditions. Broadcast and individual plant treatments are presented in Table 1. Individual plant treatments are best suited for controlling thin stands of brush (usually less than 150 plants/acre) and for selective control. Broadcast treatments are useful for dense stands of target weeds.

Suggested herbicides must be registered and labeled for use by the Environmental Protection Agency. Some of the suggested herbicides are restricted-use pesticides and require an applicator’s license for purchase and use. Because the status of herbicide label clearance is subject to change, be certain to use a current label for the herbicide’s intended use.

The user is always responsible for the effects of herbicide residue on livestock and crops, as well as for problems that arise from drift or other herbicide movement from the user’s property to the property of others.

The label is a legal document, and violation of it is a federal offense. Always read and follow carefully the instructions on the container label. Especially note any grazing restrictions that apply to the herbicide.

Table 1. Herbicides for Controlling Undesirable Brush and Weeds on Rangelands

Plant controlled

Trade name example

Herbicide
(common chemical name and active ingredient)

Herbicide quantity
(active ingredient or acid equivalent in parenthesis)

Spray
volume (broadcast per acre or individual plant)

Time of
application

Remarks

Broadcast rate (per acre)

Individual plant/spot treatment

African rue
(Peganum harmala)

Arsenal

imazapyr

3 pt (3/4 lb)

1 gal per 100 gal. water (2 lb per 100 gal water)

10–25 gal for ground broadcast

Spray only actively growing (non-stressed) plants

Caution: Arsenal or Velpar L will damage or kill other sprayed or nearby vegetation

Velpar L

hexazinone

2 ml/plant

Individual plant treatment only

Any time of year

Pronone Power Pellets 

hexazinone

1 pellet/plant

Algerita
(Mahonia trifoliolata)

Velpar

hexazinone

 

3 ml/3 ft canopy height

Individual plant treatment only

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Do not apply to snow-covered or frozen ground

Pronone Power Pellets

hexazinone

 

1 pellets/2 ft canopy height

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/16 oz pellets/3 ft canopy height

Bindweed, field
(Convolvulus arvensis)

Banvel, Clarity

dicamba

1 pt to 1 qt (1/2 to 1 lb)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast application. Use surfactant as per label.

Summer fallow prior to planting and when weeds are actively growing, or in late summer or fall prior to post-bloom or killing frost. Follow-up applications should be made in spring to control seedlings. Spring to fall.

For suppression, refer to label for crop rotation restrictions

Overdrive

dicamba:
diflufenzopyr

4 to 8 oz (5:2 mixture) (1/4 to 1/2 lb) 

 

Plateau

imazapic

4 to 8 oz (1/16 to 1/8 lb) 

 

Weedmaster

dicamba:2,4-D

1 pt to 1 qt (1:3 mixture) (1/2 to 1 lb)

 

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 to 2 qt (1/2 to 1 lb)

 

Paramount

quinclorac

5 to 8 oz (1/4 to 3/8 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 1–2 pints MSO.

Roundup*

glyphosate

4 to 5 qt (4 to 5 lb)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast application. Use surfactant as per label.

Full bloom to early seed stage

Tank mix Roundup + Banvel, Clarity

glyphosate + dicamba

1 qt + 1/2 pt (1 lb + 1/2 lb)

 

Mid- to late-bloom

Landmaster BW

glyphosate:2,4-D

3 1/5 pt (1:1 mixture) (l lb)

 

Fallow or post-harvest when bindweed has 10 in. runners

2,4-D*

2,4-D

2 to 3 qt (2 to 3 lb)

 

Bud stage or summer; follow in early August

Bitter sneezeweed, broomweed (annual or common), buckwheat, camphorweed, cocklebur, horehound, horsemint, knapweed, lakeweed, milkvetch, mustard, nettles, pepperweed, pinque, prairie coneflower, ragweed (common or western), sunflower, thistles, and western bitterweed

2, 4-D*

2, 4-D

1 pt to 1 qt (1/2 to 1 lb)

2–4 gal water for aerial spray; 10–25 gal for ground broadcast application. Add surfactant as needed.

Spring weeds 4–6 in. high, before blooming, good growing conditions

Use 2,4-D amine or low volatile ester. Do not spray near susceptible crops.

Weedmaster

dicamba:2,4-D

1 pt to 1 qt (1:3 mixture) (1/2 to 1 lb)

Tank mix Banvel + 2, 4-D*

dicamba + 2, 4-D

1/4 to 1/2 pt (1/8 to 1/4 lb) + 3/4 to 1 1/2 pt (3/8 to 3/4 lb)

Grazon P+D

picloram:2,4-D

1 to 3 pt (1:2 mixture) (3/10 to 9/10 lb)

Tank mix Tordon 22K** + 2,4D

picloram + 2,4-D

1/4 to 3/4 pt (1/16 to 3/16 lb) + 1/2 to 1 1/2 pt (1/4 to 3/4 lb)

Bitter sneezeweed, broomweed (annual or common), buckwheat, camphorweed, cocklebur, horehound, horsemint, knapweed, lakeweed, milkvetch, mustard, nettles, pepperweed, pinque, prairie coneflower, ragweed (common or western), sunflower, thistles, and western bitterweed
(continued)

Chaparral

aminopyralid + metsulfuron

2 1/2 to 3 1/3 oz (1/12 to 1/8 lb)

 

2–4 gal water for aerial spray; 10–25 gal for ground broadcast application. Add surfactant as needed.

Spring weeds 4–6 in. high, before blooming, good growing conditions

Use 2,4-D amine or low volatile ester. Do not spray near susceptible crops.

Escort

metsulfuron

5/8 to 4/5 oz (3/8 to 1/2 oz)

 

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

8/10 to 1 oz (6/10 to 8/10 oz)

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D:dicamba

Rate I to II (1/4 oz + 1 pt to 1/2 oz + 2 pt)

 

Overdrive

dicamba:
diflufenzopyr 

4 to 8 oz (5:2 mixture) (1/4 to 1/2 lb)

 

 

 

Milestone

aminopyralid

3 to 7 oz (1/20 to 1/10 lb)

 

Add 1/2% nonionic surfactant

GrazonNext

aminopyralid:2,4-D

1 1/2 to 2 pt (1/2 to 3/4 lb)

 

 

Black henbane
(Hyoscyamus niger)

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

6/10 oz (1/2 oz)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast application. Use surfactants as per label.

Rosette to bloom

Seedlings should be controlled the following year

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D:dicamba

Rate II (1/2 oz + 2 pt)

 

Bluestems, Old World (yellow and Caucasian)
(Bothriochloaspp.)

Roundup Pro (41%)

glyphosate

3 to 5 qt

2 to 5%

Ground broadcast: 3–40 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: 3–25 gal/acre water solution; individual plant: spray foliage to wet but not dripping

Growing prior to seedhead formation preferably during boot stage; moderate soil moisture.

A split application using 3–4 qt/acre can be applied at 5-leaf stage and again 8 weeks later if growing conditions are favorable.

Alternate use of glyphosate and imazapyr to reduce herbicide resistance. Both herbicides are non-selective.

At least 3 to several consecutive years of repeated treatments are required. Combinations of mechanical, fire, and cultural practices can be applied in addition to chemical applications when all practices are timed for maximum control and do not reduce herbicide effectiveness.

Arsenal

imazapyr

1 to 1.5 pt

0.5%

Ground broadcast: 5-20 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: 2-30 gal/acre water solution; individual plant: spray foliage but not to dripping

Growing prior to seedhead formation preferably during boot stage; moderate soil moisture.

A split application using 8 oz/acre can be applied at 5-leaf stage and again 8 weeks later if growing conditions are favorable.

Alternate use of glyphosate and imazapyr to reduce herbicide resistance. Both herbicides are non-selective.

At least 3 to several consecutive years of repeated treatments are required. Combinations of mechanical, fire, and cultural practices can be applied in addition to chemical applications when all practices are timed for maximum control and do not reduce herbicide effectiveness.

Do not exceed 1.5 pt ac/yr on pasture or rangeland.

Bursage, skeletonleaf
(Ambrosia tomentosa)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

1 1/2 to 2 qt (1 1/2 to 2 lb)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast application

Without cultivation, spring and fall

Treat after tillage when regrowth is 4–6 in.

Tordon 22K**

picloram

2 qt (1 lb)

 

Fully leaved and actively growing

 

Banvel, Clarity

dicamba

1 to 2 qt (1 to 2 lb)

 

Late summer and fall

Camelthorn
(Alhagi psuedalhagi)

Escort XP

metsulfuron

 

3/8 oz (1/4 oz per 100 gal water)

Individual plant treatment. Mix in 100 gal water, add 8 oz silicone surfactant.

Actively growing

Retreatment may be necessary

Arsenal

imazapyr

 

3/4 to 1 1/2 qt (3/8 to 3/4 lb per 100 gal water)

Milestone

aminopyralid

5 to 7 oz (1/12 to 1/10 lb)

 

 

In vegetative state, prior to bloom

Catclaw mimosa, whitethorn acacia
(Mimosa pigra, Vachellia constricta)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

3 3/4 to 5 lb pellets (3/4 to 1 lb)

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Use only on coarse-textured soils.

Tank mix Tordon 22K** + Remedy

picloram + triclopyr 

2 pt + 1 pt (1/2 lb + 1/2 lb) 

 

2–4 gal oil-in-water emulsion as aerial spray (1 pt to 1 qt diesel oil in water to make 2–4 gal). 10–25 gal oil-in-water emulsion for ground broadcast (1/2–1 gal diesel oil in water to make 10–25 gal).

When leaves are fully expanded. Good growing conditions.

Do not spray near susceptible crops

Transline

clopyralid

2/3 pt to 2/3 qt (1/4 to 1/2 lb)

 

Tank mix Transline + Remedy

clopyralid + triclopyr

1/3 to 2/3 pt + 1/4 to 1/2 pt (1/8 to 1/4 lb + 1/8 to 1/4 lb)

 

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/4 to 1/2 oz per 3 ft of canopy diameter or height

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground. Distribute uniformly under canopy. 

Catclaw acacia
(Senegalia greggii)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

5 to 7 1/2 lb of pellets (1 to 1 1/2 lb)

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Use only on coarse-textured soils

Tank mix Tordon 22K** + Remedy

picloram + triclopyr

2 pt + 1 pt (1/2 lb + 1/2 lb) 

 

2–4 gal oil-in-water emulsion as aerial spray (1/2–1 gal diesel oil in water to make 2–4 gal). 10–25 gal oil-in-water emulsion for ground broadcast (1/2 to 1 gal diesel oil in water to make 10–25 gal).

When leaves are fully expanded. Good growing conditions

Do not spray near susceptible crops

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/4 to 1/2 oz per 3 ft of canopy diameter or height

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground. Distribute uniformly under canopy. Use only on coarse-textured soils.

Velpar L

hexazinone

 

4 ml per 3 ft of canopy diameter or height

 

 

 

Cattail, common
(Typha latifolia)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

 

6 qt per 100 gal water (6 lb per 100 gal water)

Spray to wet with handheld equipment

Before cattail heads appear

Reapplications may be necessary. Use surfactant as per label.

Rodeo

glyphosate

 

5 3/4 to 7 1/2 pt (2 7/8 to 3 3/4 lb)

 

Early to full bloom

 

Habitat

imazapyr

2 qt (1 lb)

 

Broadcast

When plants are actively growing

Use surfactants as per label

Habitat

imazapyr

 

1 gal (2 lb) 

Mix in 100 gal of water, spray to wet. Add surfactant as per label.

 

 

Cattail, common
(Typha latifolia)

Imox

imazamox

1 to 2 qt

2 to 5%

Minimum of 5 gal/acre water solution. Better with minimum of 20 gal/acre gal water solution.

After full greenup through killing frost

For foliar application on aquatic sites, use a non-ionic surfactant labeled for aquatic sites at minimum of 0.25% v/v. For terrestrial sites, can use methylated seed oil (MSO) at 1% v/v when tank mixes exceed 30 gal. See label for additional restrictions and application methods.

Cholla, prickly pear, tasajillo
(Cylindropuntia spp., Opuntiaspp.)

Tordon 22K**

picloram

4 to 6 ml per 3 ft of plant height (cholla) or plant width (prickly pear)

Individual plant treatment, spot applied

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Apply at junction of stem and ground (cholla) or within plant area (prickly pear). Do not treat more than 25% of watershed. Herbicide is very slow acting. May take 2–3 years to show effect.

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 qt (1/2 lb)

2–4 gal water solution as aerial spray. 10–25 gal water solution as ground broadcast. Individual plant treatment.

Any time air temperature is above 60°F and not 32°F or below during the past 24 hours.

Spray dry pads and stems when soil has moderate moisture. Spray to wet.

Do not spray near susceptible crops.

Cholla: More effective spring to early summer including bloom stage but before drought stress.

Prickly pear and tasajillo: more effective late-summer to fall.

Add surfactants as label directs.

Vista

fluroxypyr

Vista 1 to 2% (1 to 2 gal/100 gal water)

(Vista XRT 0.5 – 1% v/v)

Surmount

picloram:fluroxypyr (1:1 mixture)

2 qt

1 to 2% (1 to 2 gal/100 gal water)

MezaVue

picloram + fluroxypyr + aminopyralid

1 qt

1 to 2% (1 to 2 gal/100 gal water)

Aerial: minimum of 4 gal water solution. Ground broadcast: 10-25 gal water solution.

Velpar L (cholla only)

hexazinone

 

4 to 6 ml per 3 ft of plant height

Individual plant treatment only

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Apply Velpar L to soil surface at junction of stem and ground

Pronone Power Pellets (cholla only)

hexazinone

 

1 pellet per 2 ft. of plant height

Crazyweed (silky or Lambert’s); locoweed, whitepoint or woolly
(Oxytropis spp., Astragalus spp.)

Tordon 22K**

picloram + 2,4-D

1 qt (1/2 lb)

 

2–4 gal water for aerial spray. 10–25 gal for ground broadcast application. Add surfactant as per label.

When plants are actively growing and before seeds mature

To prevent livestock poisoning, avoid grazing until plants are totally dry

Tank mix Banvel Clarity + 2,4-D*

dicamba + 2,4-D

1 qt + 1 qt (1 lb + 1 lb)

 

Weedmaster

dicamba:2,4-D

1 to 2 qt (1:3 mixture) (1 to 2 lb)

 

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1/2 oz (3/10 oz)

 

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

6/10 oz (1/2 oz)

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D:dicamba

Rate II (1/2 oz + 2 pt)

 

Grazon P+D

picloram:2,4-D

1 to 2 qt (1:4 mixture) (5/8 to 1 1/4 lb)

 

Tank mix Tordon 22K** + 2,4-D

picloram + 2,4-D

1 to 2 qt + 1 1/2 to 3 pt (1/4 to 1/2 lb + 3/4 to 1 1/2 lb 2,4-D)

 

Creosotebush
(Larrea tridentate)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

3 3/4 to 5 lb of pellets (3/4 to 1 lb)

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Use 1-lb rate when soils are loam, silt, or sandy clay loam

Tordon 22K**

picloram

 

2 to 4 ml per 3 ft of canopy diameter

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Distribute uniformly under canopy. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground. Do not treat more than 25% of watershed.

Velpar L

hexazinone

 

2 to 4 ml per 3 ft of canopy diameter

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Apply undiluted Velpar L to soil surface within 3 ft of stem base. Use exact delivery handgun applicator. Do not use on clay soil. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Pronone Power Pellets 

hexazinone

 

1 pellet per 1 ft of canopy diameter

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/4 to 1/2 oz per 3 ft of canopy diameter

 

 

 

Daisy, oxeye
(Leucanthemum vulgare)

Remedy

triclopyr

1 1/3 pt (2/3 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast

Actively growing

Retreatment may be necessary

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 to 2 pt (1/4 to 1/2 lb) 

 

Grazon P+D,

Gunslinger P+D

Picloram + 2,4-D

2 qt

Ground broadcast: 10–40 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: minimum of 2 gal/acre water solution

Emerged to late flowering

Many grasses are tolerant

Milestone

aminopyralid

4 to 6 oz

3%

Ground broadcast: 10–40 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: minimum of 2 gal/acre water solution better if 5 gal/ac

Prebud

Most grasses are tolerant

Escort, MSM 60

metsulfuron methyl

0.5 to 1.0 oz

1 gram per gallon

Ground broadcast: 20–50 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: 15–25 gal/acre water solution

Early spring or late fall (at bud/bloom or rosette stages)

Best used during warm, moist conditions. Use 0.25% v/v non-ionic surfactant.

Downy brome, cheatgrass
(Bromus tectorum)

Aatrex

atrazine

1 to 2 pt (1/2 to 1 lb)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast

When desirable vegetation is dormant

 

Gramoxone

paraquat

26 oz (1/2 lb)

 

Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant

 

2 years successive treatment necessary

Oust

sulfometuron

1 oz (3/4 oz)

 

 

Late fall or winter

See label

Roundup*

glyphosate

1/2 to 1 pt (1/4 to 1/2 lb)

 

 

After emergence and before seedset

 

Plateau, Journey

imazapic,

imazapic + glyphosate

9 to 13 oz (1/7 to 1/5 lb)

 

Add 1 qt/acre MSO

 

Use low rate for cheatgrass

Dyer’s woad
(Isatis tinctoria)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

1 1/2 to 2 qt (1 1/2 to 2 lb)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast

Rosette stage

Repeat treatments may be necessary

Escort XP

metsulfuron

3/4 oz (2/5 oz)

 

Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant

Actively growing plants

 

Telar XP

chlorsulfuron

1 oz (3/4 oz)

 

 

 

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

9/10 oz (3/4 oz)

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D: dicamba

Rate II (1/2 oz to 2 pt)

 

Goatgrass, jointed
(Aegilops cylindrical)

Oust

sulfometuron

1 3/10 oz (1 oz)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast application or 2–4 gal for aerial broadcast

Late fall or winter

See label

Plateau

imazapic

4 to 6 oz (1/16 to 3/32 lb)

 

 

Fall

Roundup

glyphosate

2 1/2 to 3 pt (1 1/4 to 1 1/2 lb)

 

Spot treatments

When fully tilled

For spot treatment

Groundsel, threadleaf, Riddell’s
(Seneciospp.)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

2 to 4 qt (2 to 4 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast or 2–4 gal for aerial broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Actively growing, prior to bloom

 

Weedmaster

dicamba:2,4-D

1 to 2 qt (1:3 mixture) (1 to 2 lb )

 

Tank mix Banvel + 2,4-D*

dicamba + 2,4-D

1/2 to 1 pt + 1 1/2 to 3 pt (1/4 to 1/2 lb + 3/4 to 1 1/2 lb) 

 

Banvel

dicamba

1 pt (1/2 lb) 

 

Tank mix Tordon 22K** +2,4-D

picloram + 2,4-D

1 to 2 pt + 1 1/2 to 3 pt (1/4 to 1/2 lb + 3/4 to 1 1/2 lb) 

 

Grazon P+D,

Gunslinger P+D

picloram:2,4-D

1 to 2 qt (1:4 mixture) (5/8 to 1 1/4 lb)

 

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 qt (1/2 lb) 

 

Telar XP

chlorsulfuron

1/2 to 1 oz (3/8 to 3/4 oz) 

 

Escort XP

metsulfuron

5/8 to 4/5 oz (3/8 to 1/2 oz) 

 

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

8/10 to 1 oz (6/10 to 8/10 oz) 

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D: dicamba

Rate II (1/2 oz + 2 pt) 

 

Gumweed, curlycup
(Grindelia squarrosa)

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1 oz (3/5 oz)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast or 2–4 gal for aerial broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Early spring

See label

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

1 1/4 oz (1 oz)

 

2,4-D*

2,4-D

2 qt (2 lb)

 

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 pt (1/4 lb)

 

Grazon P+D

picloram:2,4-D

2 qt (1:2 mixture) (1 1/5 oz)

 

GrazonNext

aminopyralid:2,4-D

1 1/2 to 2 pt (1/2 to 3/4 lb)

 

Tank mix Tordon 22K** + 2,4-D

picloram + 2,4-D

1 pt + 1 qt (1/4 lb + 1 lb)

 

Halogeton
(Halogeton glomeratus)

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1 oz (6/10 oz)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Early spring with good growth

 

Telar XP

chlorsulfuron

1/2 to 1 oz (3/8 to 3/4 oz)

 

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

1 1/4 oz (1 oz)

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D:dicamba

Rate II (1/2 oz + 2 pt)

 

2,4-D*

2,4-D

2 qt (2 lb)

 

Hemlock, western, water
(Cicuta douglasii)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

1 to 2 qt (1 to 2 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast

Flower bud stage

See label

Hoarycress, whitetop and related species
(Cardariaspp.)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

2 qt (2 lb)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Before bud stage

Repeat treatment may be necessary

Chaparral

aminopyralid + metsulfuron

2 1/2 to 3 1/3 oz (1/12 to 1/8 lb)

 

Spring or fall

 

Telar XP

chlorsulfuron

1 oz (3/4 oz)

 

Bud to early bloom

See label

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1 oz (3/5 oz)

 

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

1 1/4 oz (1 oz)

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D:dicamba

Rate III (1 oz + 4 pt) 

 

 

Plateau

imazapic

8 to 12 oz (1/8 to 3/16 lb) 

 

Horsetail, smooth, scouring rush
(Equisetumspp.)

Telar XP

chlorsulfuron

1 to 2 oz (3/4 to 1 1/2 oz)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 pt to 1 qt/100 gal spray solution.

Early spring

See label

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1 to 2 oz (3/5 to 1 1/5 oz) 

 

Oust

sulfometuron

1 1/2 oz (1 1/8 oz)

 

MCPA (4EC) Ester

2, 4-D

1 qt (1 lb) 

 

Before cone heads appear

Important to use the isoctylester formulation

Houndstongue
(Cynoglossum officinale)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

2 qt (2 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Early spring before bloom

 

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1 oz (3/5 oz) 

 

Before bolting

See label

Plateau

imazapic

13 oz (1/5 lb) 

 

Add MSO at 1 1/2–2 pt/acre

Before bloom

 

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

1 1/4 oz (1 oz) 

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D:dicamba

Rate III (1 oz + 4 pt) 

 

 

 

 

Iris, Rocky Mountain
(Iris missouriesis)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

2 qt (2 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast

Early bloom stage

Wet thoroughly

Juniper (cedar) 
(Juniperusspp.)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

5 to 10 lb of pellets (1 to 2 lb) 

 

Ground or aerial broadcast

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Use only on coarse-textured soils

Velpar L

hexazinone

 

4 to 6 ml per 3 ft of canopy height

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Apply evenly around trees at dripline. Do not treat more than 25% of watershed. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground. Treat trees under 9 ft.

Tordon 22K**

picloram

 

4 to 6 ml per 3 ft of canopy height

Knapweed, diffuse, spotted 
(Centaurea spp.)

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 1/2 pt (3/8 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast or 3–4 gal for aerial broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Rosette to mid-bolting

 

Grazon P+D

picloram:2,4-D

2 to 3 qt (1:2 mixture) (1 1/4 to 1 7/8 lb) 

 

Tank mix Tordon 22K** + 2,4-D

picloram + 2,4-D

2 to 3 pt + 3 to 4 1/2 pt (1/2 to 3/4 lb + 3 to 4 1/2 lb) 

 

2,4-D*

2,4-D

2 qt (2 lb) 

 

Early stage of flower stem elongation

Chaparral

aminopyralid + metsulfuron

2 1/2 to 3 1/3 oz (1/12 to 1/8 lb) 

 

Spring or fall

Tank mix Banvel, Clarity + 2,4-D*

dicamba + 2,4-D

1 pt + 1 qt (1/2 lb + 1 lb 2,4-D)

 

Rosette stage before bolting

Curtail

clopyralid:2,4-D

2 to 3 qt (1:5 mixture) (1 1/15 to 1 4/5 lb) 

 

See label

Transline

clopyralid

1/3 to 1 1/3 pt (1/8 to 1/2 lb) 

 

Milestone

aminopyralid

5 to 7 oz (1/12 to 1/10 lb) 

 

Knapweed, Russian 
(Acroptilon repens)

Roundup*

glyphosate

4 4/5 qt (4 4/5 lb)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast

Late bud to early flower

Retreatment may be necessary

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 to 2 qt (1/2 to 1 lb)

 

Early flower to frost

 

Curtail

clopyralid:2,4-D

1 to 2 qt (1:5 mixture) (3/5 to 1 1/5 lb) 

 

Full bloom to frost

See label

Transline

clopyralid

2/3 to 1 1/3 pt (1/4 to 1/2 lb) 

 

Full bloom to frost

 

Plateau

imazapic

12 oz (3/16 lb) 

 

Fall and winter

Add 1% v/v MSO

Milestone

aminopyralid

5 to 7 oz (1/12 to 1/10 lb) 

 

Telar XP

chlorsulfuron

1 to 3 oz (3/4 to 2 1/4 oz) 

 

Pre-bloom to bloom and fall rosette

Chaparral

aminopyralid + metsulfuron

2 1/2 to 3 1/3 oz (1/12 to 1/8 lb) 

 

Spring or fall

Larkspur, Geyer’s 
(Delphinium geyeri)

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1 1/2 oz (9/10 oz) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Rosette

 

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 1/2 to 2 qt (3/8 to 1/2 lb)

 

Rapidly growing

Larkspur, tall or duncecap 
(Delphiniumspp.)

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1 1/2 oz (9/10 oz) 

 

10–25 for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

6 to 8 leaf stage; less than 8 in. tall

 

Tordon 22K**

picloram

2 to 3 qt (1 to 1 1/2 lb)

 

Bud stage

Lotebush 
(Ziziphus obtusifolia)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/4 to 1/2 oz per 3 ft of canopy diameter or height

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Distribute pellets uniformly under canopy.

Velpar L

hexazinone

 

2 to 4 ml per 3 ft of plant diameter or height, or 2 to 4 ml per inch of stem diameter

Apply diluted Velpar L to soil surface within 3 ft of stem base. Use exact delivery handgun applicator. Do not use on clay soils. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Pronone Power Pellets

hexazinone

 

1 pellet per 2 ft plant diameter or height

Lovegrass, Lehmann, weeping
(Eragrostisspp.)

Roundup Pro (41%)

glyphosate

2 to 4 qt

2 to 5%

Ground broadcast: 3–40 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: 3–25 gal/acre; individual plant: spray foliage to wet but not dripping

Growing prior to seedhead formation, at least 50% green, good growing conditions, spring or fall.

To reduce non-target grass damage, spray when lovegrass is mostly green and native grasses are dormant.

At least 2 to several consecutive years of repeated treatments are required. Non-selective herbicide.

Combinations of mechanical, fire, and cultural practices can be applied in addition to chemical applications when all practices are timed for maximum control and do not reduce herbicide effectiveness.

Arsenal

imazapyr

1 to 1.5 pt

1 to 3%

Ground broadcast: 5–20 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: 2–30 gal/acre water solution; individual plant: spray foliage to wet but not dripping

Growing prior to seedhead formation, at least 50% green, good growing conditions, spring or fall.

To reduce non-target grass damage, spray when lovegrass is mostly green and native grasses are dormant.

At least 2 to several consecutive years of repeated treatments are required. Non-selective herbicide.

Combinations of mechanical, fire, and cultural practices can be applied in addition to chemical applications when all practices are timed for maximum control and do not reduce herbicide effectiveness.

Do not exceed 1.5 pt acre/yr on pasture or rangeland.

Mesquite, grassland 
(Prosopis spp.)

Remedy (suppression)

triclopyr

1/2 to 1 pt (1/4 to 1/2 lb) 

 

2–4 gal oil-in-water emulsion as aerial spray (1 pt to 1 qt diesel fuel oil and water to make 2–4 gal/acre). 10–25 gal oil-in-water emulsion (1/2 to 1 gal diesel fuel oil and water to make 20–25 gal/acre) as ground broadcast. Add surfactant as needed.

The preferred application time is spring to early summer, 40–90 days after bud break. Spray with minimum soil temperature of 75°F at 12- to 18-inch soil depth. Soil moisture should be adequate for plant growth.

In certain early season drought years with late summer rains, there is an opportunity for spraying in July and August. This occurs when summer rains provide sufficient soil moisture that allows mesquite foliage to recover from drought or other damage and develop healthy and robust leaf growth.

Do not spray after major rain (usually at least 1 inch of rain) that causes light-green leaves until all leaves have returned to uniform dark-green (approx. 2–3 weeks).

Foliage should be robust, dark-green, and undamaged. Foliage damaged by drought, frost, hail, wind, insects, or browsing should not be sprayed.

Sendero + Surmount is for mesquite, cacti, and cholla control.

Transline

clopyralid

2/3 pt to 2/3 qt (1/4 to 1/2 lb)

 

Tank mix Transline + Remedy

clopyralid + triclopyr

1/3 to 1 pt + 1/4 to 3/4 pt (1/8 to 3/8 lb + 1/8 to 3/8 lb) 

 

Sendero

clopyralid + aminopyralid

28 oz

1–2% of total spray solution; the higher rate is for short mesquite in dunes

Sendero + Remedy

clopyralid + aminopyralid + triclopyr

28 oz + 8 to 16 oz

1% Sendero + 0.5% Remedy of total spray solution

Sendero + Surmount

clopyralid + aminopyralid + picloram + fluroxypyr

28 oz + 1 to 2 qt

 

Remedy Ultra

triclopyr

 

0.75–1% of total spray solution 

Individual plant treatment

Spring to early summer, 40–90 days after bud break

Spray must cover all parts

Velpar L

hexazinone

 

4 to 6 ml per 3 ft of plant diameter or height, or 2 to 4 ml per inch of stem diameter

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Apply undiluted Velpar L to soil surface within 3 ft of stem base. Use exact delivery handgun applicator. Do not use on frozen or snow-covered ground.

Pronone Power Pellets

hexazinone

 

1 pellet per 2 ft of plant diameter or height

Mesquite, mixed brush (catclaw, tarbush, whitehorn, creosotebush, broom snakeweed, wolfberry) 
(Prosopis spp.)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

3 3/4 to 7 1/2 lb of pellets (3/4 to 1 1/2 lb) 

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Low rate may be used on sand or loamy sand soils

Tank mix Banvel + Remedy

dicamba + triclopyr

1/2 to 1 pt + 1/2 to 1 pt (1/4 to 1/2 lb + 1/4 to 1/2 lb) 

 

2–4 gal oil-in-water emulsion as aerial spray (1 pt to 1 qt of diesel fuel oil and water to make 2–4 gal/acre). 10–25 gal oil-in-water emulsion as ground broadcast (1/2 to 1 gal diesel fuel oil to make 20–25 gal/acre). Add surfactant as needed.

Spring to early summer, 40–90 days after bud break

For best results, monthly precipitation should exceed the annual average from January to the spray season. Foliar sprays should be applied only where there are few associated weeds, such as broom snakeweed, shinnery oak, catclaw, etc. These non-target species may dominate a stand after mesquite control and provide undesirable results.

Milkweed, showy and related species 
(Asclepias spp.)

Tordon 22K**

picloram

2 to 3 qt (1 to 1 1/2 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Bud to early bloom

See label

Banvel, Clarity

dicamba

2 qt (2 lb) 

 

Emergence to bloom

Perennial pepperwee
(Lepidium latifolium)

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1 oz (3/5 oz) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Late bud to early flower

See label

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

1 1/4 oz (1 oz) 

 

Telar XP

chlorsulfuron

1 oz (7/10 oz) 

 

Roundup

glyphosate

3 to 4 qt (3 to 4 lb) 

 

25–40 gal for ground broadcast

Mow plants when bolting bud stage, spray resprouting plants

Wait until all resprouts emerge before applications

2,4-D*

2,4-D*

2 qt (2 lb) 

 

 

Late bud to early flower

Retreatments may be necessary

Poison ivy, poison oak 
(Toxicodendron spp.)

Roundup*

glyphosate

4 to 6 qt (4 to 6 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast

Actively growing.

 

Roundup

glyphosate

 

2 gal per 100 gal water (8 lb/100 gal water) 

2% v/v individual plant treatment

Garlon 3A Ultra

triclopyr

1 to 3 gal (3 to 9 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast

Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant

Garlon 4 Ultra, Remedy

triclopyr

1 to 2 gal (4 to 8 lb) 

 

Garlon 3A Ultra

triclopyr

 

4 qt/100 gal water
(3 lb/100 gal water) 

Individual plant treatment

Garlon 4 Ultra, Remedy

 

 

3 qt/100 gal water
(3 lb/100 gal water) 

Poverty sumpweed 
(Iva axillaris)

Banvel, Clarity

dicamba

1 to 2 qt (1 to 2 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant. 

Actively growing

 

Tordon 22K**

picloram

2 pt (1/2 lb) 

 

 

2,4-D*

2,4-D

4 to 6 qt (4 to 6 lb)

 

Rabbitbrush
(Chrysothamnus spp.)

Velpar L

hexazinone 

 

4 to 6 ml per 3 ft of plant diameter

Individual plant treatment

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Apply undiluted Velpar L to soil surface within 3 ft of stem base. Do not use on clay soils. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Pronone Power Pellets

hexazinone

 

1 pellet per 2 ft of plant diameter

Tordon 22k

picloram

1 to 2 qt

1.5 to 3%

Ground broadcast: minimum of 10 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: minimum of 2 gal/acre water solution, better if minimum of 5 gal/acre

Fall, typically late September to October. Best when summer precipitation was above normal.

Green rabbitbrush typically is harder to control than grey rubber rabbitbrush.

Late post-flower stage.

Grazon P+D

picloram + 2,4-D

2 qt

1.5 to 3%

Ground broadcast: 10–40 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: 2 or more gal/acre water solution

Spring, typically late April to May. Best when winter precipitation was above normal and minimum 2.5 inches of new growth (stem/leaf).

Green rabbitbrush typically is harder to control than grey rubber rabbitbrush.

Non-ionic surfactant recommended, see label.

Surmount

picloram + fluroxypyr

3 to 6 pt

1%

Ground broadcast: minimum of 10 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: minimum of 5 gal/acre water solution

Fall, typically late September to October. Best when summer precipitation was above normal.

Green rabbitbrush typically is harder to control than grey rubber rabbitbrush.

Late post-flower stage.

Rayless goldenrod 
(Isocoma pluriflora)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

5 lb of pellets (1 lb) 

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/4 to 1/2 oz per 3 ft of canopy diameter

Individual plant treatment

Distribute pellets uniformly under canopy. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 qt (1/2 lb)

10–25 gal for ground broadcast, 2–4 gal for aerial broadcast

Fall, after blooming and before frost

Do not spray near susceptible crops

Escort XP

metsulfuron

4/5 oz (1/2 oz)

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

1 oz (8/10 oz) 

Russian olive
(see also saltcedar)
(Elaeagnus angustifolia)

Roundup

glyphosate

 

5 to 7 gal per 100 gal of water

Individual plant treatment

June–July

 

Sagebrush, big 
(Artemisia tridentate)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

2 1/2 lb of pellets (1/2 lb) 

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Select productive sites for treatment

Sagebrush, fringed 
(Artemisia frigida)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

2 qt (2 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast, or 2–4 gal for aerial broadcast

Actively growing

Repeat for two more years as necessary

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

2 1/2 to 3 3/4 lb of pellets (1/2 to 3/4 lb) 

 

Aerial or ground broadcast

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

 

Sagebrush, sand 
(Artemisia filifolia)

2,4-D* low volatile ester

2,4-D

1 to 2 qt (1 to 2 lb) 

 

2–4 gal water solution for aerial spray, or 10–25 gal water solution for ground broadcast application.
Use surfactant as needed. 

May 1 to June 15 with good growing conditions

Do not spray when plants are defoliated by late frost, drought, or other unfavorable growing conditions. Do not spray near susceptible crops.

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

2 1/2 to 3 3/4 lb of pellets (1/2 to 3/4 lb) 

 

Aerial or ground broadcast

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

 

Saltcedar
(Tamarix spp.)

Arsenal, Habitat

imazapyr

 

1 gal per 100 gal water (2 lb per 100 gal water with 0.25% surfactant) 

Individual plant treatment or ground application

August through September

Spray to wet, especially the terminal ends of all branches. Allow two full growing seasons before follow-up treatment.

Tank mix Arsenal, Habitat + Roundup*

imazapyr + glyphosate

 

1/2 to 1 gal + 1/2 to 1 gal (1 to 2 lb + 2 to 4 lb per 100 gal water with 0.25% surfactant) 

Tank mix Arsenal, Habitat + Rodeo

imazapyr + glyphosate

 

1/2 to 1 gal + 1/2 to 1 gal (1 to 2 lb + 2 to 4 lb per 100 gal water with 0.25% surfactant) 

Arsenal, Habitat

imazapyr

1/2 gal (1 lb) 

Aerial broadcast. Add 0.25% nonionic surfactant.

 

10–15 gal per acre total solution. Allow two full growing seasons before follow-up treatment.

Tank mix Arsenal, Habitat + Roundup*

imazapyr + glyphosate

1 to 1 1/2 qt + 1 to 2 pt (1/2 to 3/4 lb + 1/2 to 1 lb) 

Tank mix Arsenal, Habitat + Rodeo

imazapyr + glyphosate

1 to 1 1/2 qt + 1 to 1 1/2 pt (1/2 to 3/4 lb + 1/2 to 1 lb) 

Remedy Ultra, Garlon 4

triclopyr

25% in basal oil

Individual plant

Any time, including winter. Bark needs to be dry.

Basal bark on stems less than 6 inches in diameter with thin bark: spray bottom 12–18 inches of basal stems to wet but not dripping.

Cut stump: spray cambium, sides of stumps, and root collar immediately following cutting.

Sand shinnery oak 
(Quercus havardii)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

2 1/2 to 5 lb of pellets (1/2 to 1 lb) 

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

 

Velpar L

hexazinone

 

2 to 4 ml per 33 square ft of canopy diameter

Individual plant treatment

Any time of year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Apply undiluted Velpar L to soil surface within 3 ft of stem base or in a grid pattern. Use exact delivery handgun applicator. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Pronone Power Pellets

hexazinone

 

1 to 2 pellets per 33 square ft of canopy diameter

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/2 oz per 22 square ft of canopy diameter when treating a thicket or clump

 

 

Distribute uniformly under canopy. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Scrub oak, (wavy leaf, Gambel oak) 
(Quercus spp.)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

3 3/4 to 7 1/2 lb of pellets (3/4 to 1 1/2 lb) 

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Distribute uniformly under canopy. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Velpar L

hexazinone

 

2 to 4 ml per 33 square ft of canopy diameter

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season

Apply undiluted Velpar L to soil surface within 3 ft of stem base. Use exact delivery handgun applicator. Do not use on clay soils. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Pronone Power Pellets

hexazinone

 

1 to 2 pellets per 33 square ft of canopy diameter

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/4 oz per 22 square ft canopy diameter when treating a clump or thicket

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season

Distribute uniformly under canopy. Do not apply to frozen or snow- covered ground.

Arsenal

imazapyr

 

1 gal per 100 gal water (1 gal per 100 gal water) 

Individual plant treatment or ground application

Any time during growing season when growing conditions are good

Spray to wet. Use 0.25% nonionic surfactant.

Snakeweed (broom, threadleaf, perennial broomweed, turpentine weed
(Gutierrezia spp.)

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 pt to 1 qt (1/4 to 1/2 lb) 

 

2–4 gal water for aerial spray; 10–25 gal for ground broadcast application. Add surfactant as needed. 

Fall, after full bloom, or spring when growing conditions are good

Use drift control agent and add emulsifier to oil. Foliar sprays are recommended where broom snakeweed is the primary species.

Tank mix Tordon 22K** + 2,4-D

picloram + 2,4-D

1 pt to 1 qt + 1 qt (1/4 to 1/2 lb + 1 lb) 

 

Grazon P+D

picloram:2,4-D

1 to 2 qt (1:4 mixture) (5/8 to 1 1/4 lb) 

 

Weedmaster

dicamba:2,4-D

1 1/2 to 2 qt (1:3 mixture) (1 1/2 to 2 lb)

 

Escort XP

metsulfuron

5/8 to 4/5 oz (3/8 to 1/2 oz) 

 

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

3/5 oz (1/2 oz) 

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D:dicamba

Rate II (1/2 oz + 2 pt) 

 

 

 

 

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

3 3/4 to 5 lb of pellets (3/4 to 1 lb) 

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Use only on coarse-textured soils

Starthistle (yellow, malta, and purple)
(Centaurea spp.)

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1 oz (3/5 oz) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Use surfactant as per label.

Seedling to early bud

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D:dicamba

Rate III (1 oz + 4 pt) 

 

Overdrive

dicamba:
diflufenzopyr

4 oz (1/4 lb) 

 

 

Rosette

Remedy

triclopyr

3 pt (1 1/2 lb) 

 

 

Spring to early bud

2,4-D*

2,4-D

1 qt (1 lb) 

 

Arsenal

imazapyr

1 pt (1/4 lb) 

 

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 pt (1/4 lb) 

 

Banvel, Clarity

dicamba

1 pt (1 lb) 

 

Transline

clopyralid

2/3 pt (1/4 lb) 

 

Grazon P+D

picloram:2,4-D

2 qt (1:4 mixture) (1 1/4 lb) 

 

Milestone

aminopyralid

3 to 5 oz (1/20 to 1/12 lb) 

 

Spurge, leafy
(Euphorbia esula)

Banvel, Clarity

dicamba

2 qt (2 lb) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Spring to early summer

Retreatment is necessary

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 to 3 pt (1/2 to 1 1/2 lb) 

 

2,4-D*

2,4-D

1 qt (1 lb) 

 

Plateau

imazapic

8 to 12 oz (1/8 to 3/16 lb) 

 

Add 1% v/v MSO

Late summer through fall; spring to early summer

Tank mix Overdrive + Tordon 22K

dicamba:
diflufenzopyr + picloram

4 to 6 oz + 8 to 16 oz (1/4 to 3/8 lb + 1/8 to 1/4 lb) 

 

Sumac, skunkbush
(Rhus spp.)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

3 3/4 to 5 lb of pellets (3/4 to 1 lb) 

 

Aerial ground broadcast 

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/4 to 1/2 oz per 3 ft of canopy diameter or height

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Distribute uniformly under canopy

Tarbush 
(Eremphilia glabra)

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

2 1/2 to 3 3/4 lb of pellets (1/2 to 3/4 lb) 

 

Aerial broadcast

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

 

Tordon 22K**

picloram

 

2 to 4 ml per 3 ft of canopy diameter

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Apply undiluted Tordon 22K to soil surface within 3 ft of stem base. Use exact delivery handgun applicator. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Spike 20P

tebuthiuron

 

1/3 to 1/2 oz per 3 ft of canopy diameter

 

 

Distribute uniformly under canopy. Do not apply to frozen or snow-covered ground.

Thistle, musk, scotch, Canada, and bull 
(Carduus nutans, Onopordum acanthium, Cirsium spp.)

Escort XP

metsulfuron

1/2 to 1 oz (3/10 to 3/5 oz) 

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% nonionic surfactant. 

Rosette

 

Cimarron Plus

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron

3/5 to 1 1/4 oz (1/2 to 1 oz) 

 

Cimarron Max

metsulfuron + 2,4-D:dicamba

Rate II to III (1/2 oz + 2 pt to 1 oz + 4 pt) 

 

Telar XP

chlorsulfuron

1/2 to 1 oz (3/8 to 3/4 oz)

 

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 to 2 pt (1/4 to 1/2 lb) 

 

Before bolting

Overdrive

dicamba:
diflufenzopyr

4 to 6 oz (1/4 to 3/8 lb) 

 

Rosette to bolting

Plateau

imazapic

8 to 12 oz (1/8 to 3/16 lb) 

 

Early spring or fall

Curtail

clopyralid:2,4-D

1 to 2 qt (1:5 mixture) (3/5 to 1 1/5 lb)

 

 

Tank mix Remedy + 2,4-D

triclopyr + 2,4-D

1 1/3 pt + 1 to 2 qt (2/3 lb + 1 to 2 lb) 

 

Milestone

aminopyralid

3 to 7 oz (1/20 to 1/10 lb) 

 

Use higher rates for Canada thistle

Toadflax, Dalmatian, yellow
(Linaria spp.)

Telar XP

chlorsulfuron

2 oz (1 1/2 oz)

 

10–25 gal for ground broadcast. Add 0.25% v/v nonionic surfactant.

Actively growing in spring or fall

See label

Tordon 22K**

picloram

1 to 2 qt (1/2 to 1 lb)

 

 

Through full bloom or to fall regrowth

Especially effective after first killing frost

Picloram 22K + Overdrive

picloram + diflufenzopyr + dicamba

1 to 2 qt + 8 oz

Ground broadcast: minimum of 10 gal/acre water solution

Flowering, when 75% of shoots have flowered

Add methylated seed oil (MSO) as stated on label

Toadflax, Dalmatian
(Linaria dalmatica)

Chlorsulfuron 75 + Overdrive

chlorsulfuron + diflufenzopyr + dicamba

2 to 2 2/3 oz + 8 oz (non-agricultural)

Ground broadcast: minimum of 10 gal/acre water solution

Flowering, when 75% of shoots have flowered

Add methylated seed oil (MSO) as stated on label.

Pasture and rangeland: max 1 1/3 oz/acre Chlorsulfuron 75.

Toadflax, yellow
(Linaria vulgaris)

Chlorsulfuron 75 + Overdrive

chlorsulfuron + diflufenzopyr + dicamba

1 3/4 oz + 8 oz (non-agricultural)

Ground broadcast: minimum of 10 gal/acre water solution

Flowering, when 75% of shoots have flowered

Add methylated seed oil (MSO) as stated on label.

Pasture and rangeland: max 1 1/3 oz/acre Chlorsulfuron 75.

Tree of heaven
(Ailanthus altissima)

Roundup Pro (41%)

glyphosate

2 to 5 qt

2%

Ground broadcast: 3–40 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: 3–25 gal/acre water solution; individual plant: spray foliage to wet but not dripping

Growing, fully leafed, late summer to early fall, before leaf color change

Foliar on healthy trees (not drought stressed or defoliated); complete leaf coverage for best results.

This is a non-selective herbicide.

Roundup Pro (41%)

glyphosate

50 to 100%

Individual plant

Growing, fully leafed, late summer to early fall, before leaf color change

Cut stump. Apply to cambium immediately after cutting.

Arsenal

imazapyr

1 to 1 1/2 pt ground broadcast.

1 to 5%

Ground broadcast: 5–20 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: 2–30 gal/acre water solution; individual plant: spray foliage but not to dripping

Growing, fully leafed, late summer to early fall, before leaf color change

Foliar on healthy trees (not drought stressed or defoliated); complete leaf coverage for best results.

This is a non-selective herbicide.

Arsenal

imazapyr

3 to 5%

Individual plant

Growing, fully leafed, late summer to early fall, before leaf color change

Cut stump. Apply to cambium immediately after cutting.

Remedy Ultra

triclopyr

2 to 4 pt

1 to 2%

Ground broadcast: minimum 10 gal/acre; aerial broadcast: minimum 4 gal/acre; individual plant: spray foliage to wet but not dripping

Growing, fully leafed, late summer to early fall, before leaf color change

Foliar on healthy trees (not drought stressed or defoliated). Use oil-water emulsion mix for most consistent results; see label for mixing directions. Broadleaf selective herbicide.

Tree of heaven
(continued)
(Ailanthus altissima)

Remedy Ultra, Garlon 4

triclopyr

30% in basal oil

Individual plant

Any time, including winter. Bark needs to be dry.

Basal bark on stems less than 6 inches in diameter with thin bark: spray bottom 12–18 inches of basal stems to wet but not dripping.

Cut stump: spray cambium, sides of stumps, and root collar immediately following cutting.

Do not exceed maximum basal bark application rate of 2 gal/acre.

Banvel

dicamba

2 qt

5%

Ground broadcast: minimum of 3 gal/acre water solution; aerial broadcast: 2–40 gal/acre water solution; individual plant: spray foliage but not to dripping

Growing, fully leafed, late summer to early fall, before leaf color change

Foliar on healthy trees (not drought stressed or defoliated). Primarily for control of broadleaf plants, but some grasses can be injured.

Willows 
(Salix spp.)

2,4-D*

2,4-D

 

2 to 3 qt (2 to 3 lb per 100 gal of water solution) 

Individual plant treatment (2 to 3 lb per 100 gal of water solution) 

Spring, when leaves are fully expanded. Good growing conditions.

Wet foliage thoroughly. Do not spray when plants are defoliated by late freeze, hail, insects, or other unfavorable conditions.

Arsenal, Habitat

imazapyr

 

1 gal (2 lb per 100 gal water + 0.25% surfactant) 

Individual plant treatment

Any time during growing season. Good growing conditions.

 

Tank mix Arsenal + Roundup*

imazapyr + glyphosate

 

1/2 to 1 gal + 1/2 to 1 gal (1 to 2 lb + 2 1/2 to 5 lb per 100 gal water + 0.25% surfactant) 

Tank mix Arsenal, Habitat + Rodeo

imazapyr + glyphosate

 

1/2 to 1 gal + 1/2 to 1 gal (1 to 2 lb + 2 1/2 to 5 lb per 100 gal water + 0.25% surfactant) 

Yucca 
(Yucca spp.)

Velpar L

hexazinone

 

4 to 7 ml per whorl

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year. Optimum is prior to rainy season.

Apply undiluted Velpar L directly to whorl

Remedy

triclopyr

 

3 to 4 ml per whorl

Individual plant treatment

Any time during year

Apply to every whorl. May be mixed with water or diesel.

Arsenal

imazapyr

 

2 to 3 ml per whorl

Apply to every whorl. May be mixed with water.

Cimarron Max + 2,4-D low volatile ester

metsulfuron + dicamba + 2,4-D

Rate II (1/2 oz + 2 pt) + 1 pt to 1 1/2 pt 2,4-D (1/2 lb to 3/4 lb) 

Spray each whorl thoroughly. Mix in 100 gal water.

4 gal/acre minimum

Spring through fall

Crop oil concentrate, MSO or MSO/organosilicone are preferred adjuvants. Second application within two years may be needed; see label.

Cimarron Plus + 2,4-D low volatile ester

metsulfuron + chlorsulfuron + 2,4-D

5/8 oz + 1 qt (1 lb) 

 

*Sold under several different trade names and formulations. Check the active ingredient rate on the label to determine the correct product application rate.
**Restricted use product.

Appendix A. Common Chemical and Product Names of Herbicides

The herbicides are identified by the accepted Weed Science Society of America common name or other common designation, the correct chemical names as required on the label, and, where practical, one or more product names. Herbicides marketed under three or more labels have been designated “several manufacturers” rather than attempting to list all the trade formulations.

Herbicide common name

Chemical name

Trade name

Active ingredient (a.i.) or acid equivalent (a.e.)

2,4-D

(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid

Several
manufacturers

Amine salts and esters, 4 lb/gal, 6 lb/gal, others

Aminopyralid

2-pyridine carboxylic acid, 4 amino-3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid

Milestone

2 lb/gal a.e.

Aminopyralid:2,4-D (1:8)

See aminopyralid and 2,4-D

GrazonNext

0.41 lb/gal aminopyralid, 3.33 lb/gal 2,4-D a.e.

Aminopyralid:metsulfuron

See aminopyralid and metsulfuron

Chaparral

0.62 lb aminopyralid a.i. and 0.0945 lb metsulfuron methyl per pound of product

Atrazine

6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine

Several
manufacturers

----

Chlorsulfuron

2-chloro-N-[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino] carbonyl] benzenesulfonamide

Telar XP, Chlorsulfuron 75

75% a.i.

Clopyralid

3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid

Transline, Stinger, Sonora

3 lb/gal a.e.

Clopyralid:2,4-D (1:5)

See clopyralid and 2,4-D

Curtail

0.38 lb/gal clopyralid, 2 lb/gal 2,4-D a.e.

Dicamba

3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid

Banvel, Clarity

4 lb/gal a.e.

Dicamba:2,4-D (1:3)

See dicamba and 2,4-D

Weedmaster

1 lb/gal dicamba a.e., 2.87 lb/gal 2,4-D a.e.

Diesel fuel oil

Refined petroleum fractions

Several
manufacturers

 

Diflufenzopyr:dicamba

2-(1-[([3,5-difluorophenylamino]carbonyl) hydrazono]ethyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, sodium salt; see dicamba

Overdrive

0.2 lb and 0.5 lb per pound of product a.e.

Fluroxypyr

1-methylheptylester:[(4-amino-3,5- dichloro-6-fluoro -2-pyridinyl)oxy] acetic acid

Vista

1.5 lb/gal a.e.

(Vista XRT 2.8 lb/gal a.e.)

Glyphosate

N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine

Rodeo

5.4 lb/gal a.i.

Glyphosate*

N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine

Several
manufacturers

4 lb/gal a.i., others

Glyphosate:2,4-D (1:1 1/4)

See glyphosate and 2,4-D

Landmaster

Landmaster II 1.2 lb/gal glyphosate a.i., 1 lb/gal 2,4-D a.i.

Landmaster BW 1.2 lb/gal glyphosate a.i., 1.9 lb/gal 2,4-D a.i.

Herbicide common name

Chemical name

Trade name

Active ingredient (a.i.) or acid equivalent (a.e.)

Hexazinone

3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4 (1H,3H)-dione

Velpar L

2 lb/gal a.i.

Imazamox

2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-methoxymethyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid

Clearcast

1.0 lb/gal a.i.

Imazamox

2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-methoxymethyl)-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid

Imox

1 lb/gal imazamox a.e.

Imazapic

(±)-2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-y1]-5-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid

Plateau

2 lb/gal a.i.

Imazapic:glyphosate

See imazapic and glyphosate

Journey

0.75 lb/gal of imazapic a.i., 1.5 lb/gal of glyphosate a.i.

Imazapyr

(±)-2-[4,5-dihydro-4 methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3- pyridinecarboxylic acid

Arsenal, Habitat

2 lb/gal a.e.

Metsulfuron

methyl 2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6 methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl] benzoate

Escort XP, MSM 60

60% a.i.

Metsulfuron:chlorsulfuron (3:1)

See metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron

Cimarron Plus

48% metsulfuron a.i., 15% chlorsulfuron a.i.

Metsulfuron dicamba:2,4-D 1:3

See metsulfuron, dicamba, and 2,4-D

Cimarron Max

0.75% metsulfuron methyl, 12.25% dicamba, and 35.25% 2,4-D a.i.

Paraquat

1,1’-dimethyl-4,4’ bipyridiniumiun

Several
manufacturers

----

Picloram

4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid

Tordon 22K**

2 lb/gal a.e.

Picloram:2,4-D (1:4)

See Picloram and 2,4-D

Grazon P+D, Gunslinger P+D

0.54 lb/gal picloram a.e., 2 lb/gal 2,4-D a.e.

Picloram: fluroxypyr

See picloram and fluroxypyr

Surmount

1.19 lb/gal picloram a.i., 0.96 lb/gal fluroxypyr a.i.

Picloram:fluroxypyr:aminopyralid

See picloram, fluroxypyr, and aminopyralid

MezaVue

0.97 lb/gal picloram a.i., 1.2 lb/gal fluroxypyr a.i., 0.49 lb/gal aminopyralid a.i.

Quinclorac

3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid

Paramount

75% a.i.

Sulfometuron

methyl 2 [[[[(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl) amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl] benzoate]

Oust

75% a.i.

Tebuthiuron

N-[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-N,N’-dimethylurea

Spike 20P

20% or 0.2 lb a.i. per pound of product

Triclopyr

[(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy] acetic acid

Remedy Ultra,
Garlon 4 Ultra, Garlon 3A

4 lb/gal a.e., 3 lb/gal a.e.

*Sold under several different trade names and formulations. Check the active ingredient rate on the label to determine the correct product application rate.
**Restricted use product.

For Further Reading

B-806: Brush and Weed Control on New Mexico Ranges
https://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_b/B806/welcome.html

B-816: Managing Rangelands and Cattle in Drought-Prone Areas of the Southwest
https://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_b/B816/welcome.html

CR-678: Poisonous Plants of New Mexico Rangelands
https://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_circulars/CR678/welcome.html


Original authors: Keith Duncan, Extension Brush and Weed Specialist and Professor; and Kirk McDaniel, Range Management Specialist and Professor. Subsequently revised by Keith Duncan, Kirk McDaniel, and Mark Renz, Extension Weed Specialist.


Photo of Caset Spackman.

Casey Spackman is an Assistant Professor and Extension Range Management Specialist at New Mexico State University. He earned his Ph.D. at Utah State University. His Extension efforts aim to assist producers, land managers, and agency personnel in monitoring and developing management objectives that maintain or improve natural resource health and sustainability.


To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences on the World Wide Web at aces.nmsu.edu/pubs.

Contents of publications may be freely reproduced, with an appropriate citation, for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. For permission to use publications for other purposes, contact pubs@nmsu.edu or the authors listed on the publication.

New Mexico State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and educator. NMSU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.

Revised May 2021 Las Cruces, NM