NMSU: 1999-2000 Onion Variety Trials at New Mexico State University
NMSU branding

1999-2000 Onion Variety Trials at New Mexico State University


Technical Report 38
C.S. Cramer, Assistant Professor
J.L. Mendoza, Senior Research Specialist
M.M. Wall, Associate Professor
College of Agriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences New Mexico State University


Acknowledgements

New Mexico State University’s onion breeding program staff would like to thank the following organizations and companies for their financial support of the 1999–2000 onion variety trials:

  • NMSU’s Agricultural Experiment Station
  • New Mexico Crop Improvement Association
  • New Mexico Dry Onion Commission
  • Sakata Seed America Inc.
  • Seminis Vegetable Seeds Inc.

The staff also would like to thank the following companies for their donation of seed for the 1999–2000 onion variety trials:

  • Asgrow Vegetable Seeds
  • Petoseed
  • Sakata Seed America Inc.
  • Shamrock Seed Company Sunseeds

In addition, we would like to thank Jim Fowler and the farm staff at the Fabian Garcia Research Center for their assistance with these trials. Finally, we would like to thank the students who worked to plant, thin, weed, harvest, and grade the trials.


Table of Contents

Materials and Methods
Results
     Fall-Seeded Trial
     Transplant Trial
Tables 1–8
Literature Cited


During June and July, New Mexico produces more than 50% of the onions sold in the United States (U.S. Dept. Agric., 2000). New Mexico produces three separate onion crops that differ in their harvest times. The fall-seeded crop is planted in September and October and harvested in May and June of the following year. The transplanted crop is transplanted in February and harvested in June. The spring-planted crop is planted from January to March and harvested in July.

For each planting, separate cultivars must be used, because a single cultivar may have a harvest time of only two weeks, and a continual onion harvest from late May to early August is desired. Within each planting, several different cultivars must be grown, because each crop harvest time may last 4 weeks.

In addition, bulbing in onions is initiated by increasing day length. Onion cultivars differ in the number of hours needed for bulb initiation. Cultivars that required 8–12 hours of day light for bulbing often are considered short-day cultivars. Cultivars that require 13–14 hours are considered intermediate-day onions, while cultivars that require 15 hours are considered long-day onions.

Within each classification, cultivars are described based on their relative maturity when compared against each other (early, intermediate, late). For a particular crop, such as the fall-seeded crop in New Mexico, cultivars may be described based on their maturity relative to the length of the entire harvest period for the crop as in early, intermediate, late. For a particular crop, the chosen cultivars may be a mix of short-day and intermediate-day cultivars to give the grower a contnual harvest.

Also, cultivars differ in their scale color, which may be white, yellow, or red. Thus, numerous onion cultivars must be available and adapted to southern New Mexico growing conditions to provide continual harvest of yellow, white, and red onions from May to August.

Southern New Mexico possesses a unique environment for growing onions. Temperatures are warm enough during the winter season for onions to be overwintered without substantial plant losses. Conversely, temperatures are cold enough to induce premature flowering or bolting and yield loss of fall-seeded cultivars, unless bolting resistance is present. In addition, onions are harvested during the hottest months of the year, June and July, which tends to shorten storage life. Also in July, New Mexico receives a significant amount of precipitation that can make harvesting difficult, increase disease problems, and result in yield losses. For these reasons, cultivars that perform well in other growing regions do not necessarily perform well in New Mexico.

This study was initiated to evaluate cultivars and advanced breeding lines from the onion breeding program at NMSU and commercial sources for their adaptability to and performance under southern New Mexico growing conditions.


Materials and Methods

Two variety trials, fall-seeded and spring-transplanted, were initiated at the Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M., for 2000. Onions have been grown on the fields used for these trials annually for many years. As a result pink root and Fusarium basal rot (FBR) incidences are higher in our fields than levels observed in growers’ fields. The results obtained from these trials are specific to this location; results may differ in other locations. Also, environmental conditions change from year to year, and the performance of the entries tested could change annually.

Within each trial, entries were grouped based on approximate bulb maturity (early, intermediate, late) for onions grown in southern New Mexico. Within each grouping, entries were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications per entry. Entries consisted of commercial cultivars (Cramer, 2000), NMSU cultivars, experimental commercial lines, and experimental NMSU lines. For the fall-seeded trial, 19 entries were placed in the early maturing group (table 1); 10 entries were placed in the intermediate-maturing group (table 2); and four entries were placed in the latematuring group (table 5). For the transplant trial, 16 entries were placed in the main, transplant season maturity group (table 7); and five entries were placed in the late-maturing group.

Due to poor environmental conditions, entries in the late-maturing, transplanted variety trial were not harvested and data were not collected on those entries. These environmental conditions included periods of high day temperatures in April and May, high thrips population in June, and salt movement into the plant root zone. These conditions arrested plant growth earlier than expected and resulted in poor performance of entries in the late-maturing, transplant trial.

All entries in the fall-seeded variety trial were seeded on Sept. 20, 1999 and were thinned on Nov. 9, 1999 to 4 in. (10 cm) between plants. All entries for the transplant trial were seeded in a field at the Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M. on Oct. 15, 1999 and were transplanted on Feb. 8, 2000. Transplants with three to four true leaves were used. For each entry, transplants of the same relative size were grouped together and placed in the same plot. Transplant size within each plot was kept as uniform as possible. Some variation in transplant size for each entry may have existed between plots in different replications. In general, the largest transplants were placed in the first replication, while the smallest transplants were placed in the fourth replication.

For each trial, entries were seeded or transplanted into raised, shaped beds that were 8 ft (2.5 m) long and 40 in. (1 m) wide (center to center). The number of plants per plot for each trial ranged from 50 to 60 plants. Differences in plant density among entries did not occur. Plots with less than 10 plants were not measured and were considered missing for statistical analysis.

All fields were managed in a similar fashion using standard cultural practices for producing onions in southern New Mexico (Corgan et al., 2000). Before planting, 500 lbs triple superphosphate (0N-20.1P-0K) per acre were applied to each field. Subsurface drip irrigation placed 4 in. (10 cm) below the surface was used with 18 in. (0.5 m) between emitters. Water was applied as needed. Uran 32 (urea and ammonium nitrate) (32N-0P-0K) was applied at 20–30 ppm through the drip lines for a total of 200–250 lbs N per acre for the crop. Trials were sprayed for thrips using a synthetic pyrethrin (Karate) as needed.

Before harvest, the maturity date (80% of tops down) was estimated for each plot. All four replications of a particular entry were harvested when all of the plots exhibited 80% or more of the plants with their tops down (tables 1, 3, 5, 7). The number of plants with seedstalks was counted for entries in the fall-seeded trial. The percentage of seedstalks, a measure of bolting, was calculated by dividing the number of plants with seedstalks by the total number of plants per plot. Once bulbs were removed from the ground, the total number of bulbs was counted.

Twenty-five randomly selected bulbs per plot were rated for pink root (Pyrenochaeta terrestris) severity on their roots, using a subjective rating of 1 (no pink roots) to 9 (heavily infected roots). The basal plate of 25 randomly selected bulbs was cut transversely, and the severity of FBR (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae) was rated, using a subjective rating of 1 (no diseased tissue) to 9 (70% or more diseased tissue). The percentage of diseased bulbs (either pink root or FBR) was calculated using the rated bulbs. Bulbs infected with FBR remained at the plot and were not used to calculate of bulb yield per plot.

Bulb tops and roots of all plants were clipped. Bulbs were placed in burlap sacks and were cured at field conditions for four days. After curing, the total bulb fresh weight was measured for each plot. Then bulbs were graded to remove culls (diseased bulbs, bulbs under 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) in diameter, split bulbs, double bulbs).

The number of culls was subtracted from the total number of bulbs to yield the number of marketable bulbs per plot. The marketable bulbs per plot were weighed to measure the marketable fresh weight per plot. The percentage of marketable yield was calculated by dividing the marketable weight per plot by the total weight per plot. The number of sacks per acre was determined using marketable bulb weight per plot with approximately 40 in. (1 m) bed width (center to center) and 50 lbs (22.7 kg) per sack.

The average bulb weight was calculated by dividing total marketable bulb weight by total marketable bulb number per plot. The percentage of bulbs with single growing points was determined by counting the number of bulbs with a single growing point (single center) or multiple growing points located within 0.5 in. (1.3 cm) of the bulb’s center when each bulb was cut transversely at the vertical center.

The means for each trait over four replications were calculated for each entry and for the sum of entries within each group using the Proc Means statement of the SAS statistical software (SAS Institute, Cary, N.C.). Within each group, differences between entries were calculated for each trait using the Proc GLM statement of SAS. In addition, a protected Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) mean separation test was calculated at a probability level of 5% for each trait using SAS.

Back to Table of Contents


Results

Fall-Seeded Trial

The maturity date of entries in the early maturing, fall-seeded trial ranged from May 11–17, 2000 (table 1). Several entries matured earlier than in previous years (Cramer et al., 2000; Cramer et al., 1998). The percentage of seedstalks varied among entries tested (table 1). Most NMSU and ‘NuMex’ entries exhibited a low percentage of seedstalks, while several commercial entries had 30–40% seedstalk production. The date chosen for the fall planting was 1 to 3 weeks earlier than the planting dates used by commercial growers in this area, as a screening method for bolting resistance. The bolting percentage of some entries would be less with later planting dates.

Pink root rating generally was good for most entries. However, ‘Buffalo’ was very susceptible to pink root, showing a significantly higher percentage of infected bulbs and more severe infection than any other entry (table 1). The percentage of bulbs with pink root was quite variable among entries. Several entries had the lowest incidence of pink root diseased bulbs, which ranged from 24% to 48%. The FBR incidence was variable among entries (table 1). ‘Buffalo’ had a high incidence, and the highest disease severity of FBR. All entries produced a high percentage of marketable bulbs (table 2).

The number of sacks per acre varied greatly. ‘NuMex Mesa’ produced high bulb yields, while ‘Buffalo’, NMSU 99-28, and ‘Texas Early White’ produced yields lower than a majority of the cultivars tested (table 2). The low yield of ‘Buffalo’ resulted from pink root susceptibility and small bulb size. Bulb size was generally large, with only ‘Buffalo’ and NMSU 99-28 producing small bulbs (table 2). The percentage of single centers varied from 20% (99C 3102) to 87% (‘NuMex Chaco’) (table 2). Several entries produced greater than 60% single centers.

For the intermediate-maturing entries, maturity date ranged from May 22 to June 14, 2000 (table 3). The bolting incidence was generally low, and less bolting was observed for the intermediate-maturing entries than for the early maturing entries (tables 1 and 3).

The percentage of bulbs with pink root was generally high among entries (table 3). ‘Cardinal’ was rated as having the most severe pink root symptoms. Generally, a higher pink root incidence was observed for the entries in the intermediate-maturing group than for the entries in the early maturing group (tables 1 and 3). Among the intermediate-maturing group, ‘NuMex Crispy’ expressed less pink root damage than all entries, except NMSU 98-20 or RCX 6783. The FBR incidence varied greatly among entries, with ‘Cardinal’ having the highest incidence and ‘NuMex Dulce’ having a significantly lower incidence than all entries except NMSU 98-20 or ‘NuMex Starlite’ (table 3). FBR severity was greatest for ‘Cardinal’.

The percentage of marketable bulbs produced by each entry was generally high (table 4). Yield and bulb size were excellent for all entries except ‘Cardinal’ and NMSU 99-29-1 (table 4). Entries averaged 1,338 sacks (50 lb) per acre with an average bulb size of 15.4 oz. NMSU 98-20 produced a greater yield than all entries except ‘NuMex Starlite’ and RCX 6783. The low yield and small bulb size of ‘Cardinal’ resulted from its high pink root incidence (table 3). Entries in this group averaged 55% single centers, with NMSU 99-29-1 producing a higher percentage of single-centered bulbs than all entries except ‘NuMex Dulce’ (table 4).

Among the late-maturing entries, maturity dates ranged from June 8–22, 2000 (table 5). These entries matured one to two weeks earlier than in previous years (Cramer et al., 2000; Cramer et al., 1998). Seedstalk production was low among the four entries tested (table 5).

The pink root incidence was generally high (96% average); however, the severity was generally low (2.7) (table 5). The FBR incidence and severity was generally low, 30% and 2.1, respectively (table 5) as compared with earlier maturing varieties (tables 1 and 3) and the same entries tested last year (Cramer et al., 2000). NMSU 99-24 had a lower FBR incidence (18%) than NMSU 98-97 or ‘NuMex Luna’.

The percentage of marketable bulbs was variable among entries, with NMSU 99-24 producing a higher percentage of marketable bulbs than NMSU 98-97 or ‘NuMex Freedom’ (table 6). Bulb yield and size were generally large at 1243 sacks/acre and 15.3 oz, respectively. NMSU 98-97 produced smaller bulbs and a lower yield at 10.8 oz. and 841 sacks/acre, respectively, than the other three entries (table 6). The percentage of bulbs with single centers was generally high (62%), with ‘NuMex Luna’ producing fewer singlecentered bulbs (40%) than NMSU 98-97 or NMSU 99-24 (table 6).

Transplant Trial

Maturity dates of transplant trial entries ranged from June 14–30, 2000, with an average maturity date of June 22 (table 7). Several entries matured at a similar time as the late-maturing, fall-seeded entries (table 5). Maturity dates this past year were two weeks earlier than maturity dates of entries tested in the previous year (Cramer et al., 2000).

All entries possessed a relatively high pink root incidence (96%) and moderate severity (2.8) (table 7). ‘Candy’ and ‘NuMex Casper’ had the lowest pink root incidence (84% and 81%, respectively) and severity (2.1 and 2.0, respectively). The FBR incidence and severity was generally low for all entries at 8.5%, and 1.2, respectively (table 7). For both fall- and springseeded entries, the FBR incidence and severity was generally lower when entries were transplanted (table 7) than when entries were direct-seeded (tables 3, 5, and 9).

The percentage of marketable bulbs was generally high (93%) (table 8). Bulb yield was variable among entries and generally correlated well with bulb size (table 8). High bulb yields resulted from large bulbs, while low bulb yields resulted from small bulbs. ‘Cimarron’ produced a high yield (1,004 sacks) and the largest bulbs (11.5 oz), while NMSU 98-97 produced the lowest yield (363 sacks) and smallest bulbs (3.9 oz).

For fall-seeded cultivars, bulb yield and size were generally greater when entries were direct-seeded (tables 4 and 6) than when entries were transplanted (table 8). The percentage of single-centered bulbs was variable among entries (table 8). Several entries produced greater than 60% single-centered bulbs.

Back to Table of Contents


Tables

Table 1. Bulb maturity, seedstalks, and disease evaluation of fall-seeded, early maturing entries in 1999–2000 onion trial at Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M.

Entryz Seed
source
Harvest
datey
Maturity
datex
Seedstalks
(%)w
Pink
rootv
Pink
root (%)u
Fusariumt Fusarium
(%)s
99C 3102 Sakata May 18 May 16 31.4 2.1 46.0 3.1 49.0
Buffalo Shamrock May 18 May 15 1.1 6.1 100.0 6.8 97.0
Daybreak Shamrock May 18 May 17 21.1 1.7 42.4 2.3 28.8
Don Victor Sunseeds May 18 May 16 33.4 2.5 59.0 2.0 37.0
Excalibur Sunseeds May 18 May 17 38.0 1.8 45.3 1.7 25.3
Ibex Shamrock May 18 May 17 2.0 1.8 47.0 1.8 25.0
Nikita Sunseeds May 11 May 11 22.5 2.3 62.0 2.7 55.0
NMSU 98-13-1 NMSU May 11 May 11 0.0 2.0 68.0 1.8 28.0
NMSU 98-16 NMSU May 11 May 11 0.5 2.1 73.0 2.9 63.0
NMSU 99-16 NMSU May 11 May 11 0.0 1.9 73.0 1.6 37.0
NMSU 99-28 NMSU May 11 May 11 0.9 1.6 53.0 1.9 41.0
NMSU 99-91 NMSU May 11 May 11 5.4 1.3 24.0 1.5 46.0
NuMex BR1 NMSU May 18 May 16 2.9 2.0 47.0 1.4 12.0
NuMex Chaco NMSU May 18 May 16 0.5 2.0 48.0 2.5 47.0
NuMex Mesa NMSU May 18 May 16 1.5 1.9 48.0 1.7 24.0
NuMex Sweetpak NMSU May 18 May 16 18.6 2.1 46.0 1.9 39.0
RCX 5758 Sunseeds May 18 May 16 18.6 1.9 45.0 1.9 38.0
SSC 6355 Shamrock May 18 May 15 5.0 2.6 55.0 2.7 46.0
Texas Early White Petoseed May 18 May 17 28.8 1.8 33.4 2.1 32.0
Mean     May 14 12.0 2.2 53.4 2.3 40.6
LSD (5%)     2*** 7.7*** 0.7*** 24.1*** 1.1*** 20.5***
***Significant at P = 0.001.
zAll entries have yellow skin, except NMSU 99-28, NMSU 99-91, and ‘Texas Early White’, which have white
  skin, and NMSU 98-16 which has red skin.
yAn entry was harvested when all four replications had 80% of their tops down within the plot.
xA plot was considered matured when 80% of the tops were down.
wThe percentage of seedstalks was determined at harvest and calculated by dividing the number of plants
  with seedstalks by the total number of plants per plot.
vPink root rating. Root system of bulbs were rated based on a scale of 1 (no infected roots) to 9 (completely
  infected roots).
uPercentage of bulbs with pink root.
tFusarium basal plate rot rating. Cut basal plates were rated based on a scale of 1 (no disease tissue) to 9
  (70% or more of basal plate decayed).
sPercentage of bulbs with Fusarium basal plate rot (FBR). Each bulb’s basal plate was cut transversely to
  reveal the presence or absence of FBR.

Table 2. Yield performance of fall-seeded, early maturing entries in 1999–2000 onion trial at Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M.

Entry Seed
source
Marketable
yield (%)z
Sacks/acre
(number)y
Average bulb
weight (oz)x
Single
centers (%)w
99C 3102 Sakata 92 1010 17.0 20.0
Buffalo Shamrock 93 487 8.5 66.7
Daybreak Shamrock 87 1069 16.0 54.5
Don Victor Sunseeds 88 1089 19.4 61.3
Excalibur Sunseeds 97 1229 20.8 48.0
Ibex Shamrock 89 1166 13.1 38.7
Nikita Sunseeds 97 1033 13.9 64.4
NMSU 98-13-1 NMSU 94 1225 12.8 73.3
NMSU 98-16 NMSU 95 1127 11.7 70.0
NMSU 99-16 NMSU 97 1256 12.8 81.1
NMSU 99-28 NMSU 88 694 7.6 51.1
NMSU 99-91 NMSU 92 965 10.5 51.1
NuMex BR1 NMSU 95 1166 12.1 61.3
NuMex Chaco NMSU 92 1283 13.8 86.7
NuMex Mesa NMSU 94 1497 15.6 60.0
NuMex Sweetpak NMSU 88 1211 18.1 60.0
RCX 5758 Sunseeds 88 1292 17.6 68.0
SSC 6355 Shamrock 84 1312 15.1 22.7
Texas Early White Petoseed 92 717 12.9 47.3
Mean   92 1094 14.1 57.3
LSD (5%)   NS 228*** 2.8*** 22.8***
NS, ***Nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.001, respectively.
zPercentage of marketable yield was calculated by dividing marketable bulb weight by total
   bulb weight.
yNumber of 50 lb sacks produced per acre was calculated by weighing the marketable bulbs
  per plot and adjusting the plot size to one acre.
xAverage bulb weight was calculated by dividing the marketable bulb weight by the number
   of marketable bulbs.
wThe percentage of bulbs with single centers (single growing point) was determined by
  cutting each bulb transversely at the vertical center and measuring the number of growing
  points that extended 0.5 in. beyond the bulb’s center.

Table 3. Bulb maturity, seedstalks, and disease evaluation of fall-seeded, intermediate-maturing entries in 1999–2000 onion trial at Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M.

Entryz Seed
source
Harvest
datey
Maturity
datex
Seedstalks
(%)w
Pink
rootv
Pink
root (%)u
Fusariumt Fusarium
(%)s
Cardinal Shamrock June 1 May 30 0.0 4.2 100.0 5.7 99.0
Caribou Shamrock June 1 May 30 3.1 2.7 84.0 3.8 65.0
NMSU 98-17-1 NMSU May 30 May 30 0.0 3.1 100.0 4.3 75.0
NMSU 98-20 NMSU May 30 May 29 0.0 1.7 63.0 1.8 35.0
NMSU 99-29-1 NMSU May 30 May 29 0.0 3.1 99.0 3.4 66.0
NuMex Crispy NMSU June 1 May 31 0.5 1.5 59.0 2.4 48.0
NuMex Dulce NMSU June 14 June 14 0.6 2.6 100.0 2.2 26.0
NuMex Starlite NMSU June 1 May 30 1.0 2.2 87.0 1.8 36.0
NuMex Vado NMSU June 6 June 6 2.4 2.9 99.0 2.8 53.0
RCX 6783 Sunseeds May 23 May 22 9.7 2.0 71.0 2.3 49.0
Mean     May 31 1.7 2.6 86.2 3.0 55.2
LSD (5%)     1*** 2.8*** 0.6*** 15.9*** 0.9*** 15.4***
***Significant at P = 0.001.
zAll entries have yellow skin, except NMSU 98-20 and ‘NuMex Crispy’, which have white skin, and
  ‘Cardinal’, NMSU 98-17-1, and NMSU 99-29-1, which have red skin.
yAn entry was harvested when all four replications had 80% of their tops down within the plot.
xA plot was considered matured when 80% of the tops were down.
wThe percentage of seedstalks was determined at harvest and calculated by dividing the number of plants with seedstalks
    by the total number of plants per plot.
vPink root rating. Root system of bulbs were rated based on a scale of 1 (no infected roots) to 9 (completely infected roots).
uPercentage of bulbs with pink root.
tFusarium basal plate rot rating. Cut basal plates were rated based on a scale of 1 (no disease tissue) to 9
   (70% or more of basal plate decayed).
sPercentage of bulbs with Fusarium basal plate rot (FBR). The basal plate of each bulb was cut transversely
  to reveal the presence or absence of FBR.

Table 4. Yield performance of fall-seeded, intermediate-maturing entries, 1999–2000 onion trial at Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M.

Entry Seed
source
Marketable
yield (%)z
Sacks/acre
(number)y
Average bulb
weight (oz)x
Single
centers (%)w
Cardinal Shamrock 90 616 8.8 41.3
Caribou Shamrock 86 1184 16.0 30.0
NMSU 98-17-1 NMSU 89 1132 13.4 46.7
NMSU 98-20 NMSU 95 1718 18.0 42.5
NMSU 99-29-1 NMSU 93 884 10.5 88.2
NuMex Crispy NMSU 86 1306 14.6 58.7
NuMex Dulce NMSU 96 1277 15.7 76.0
NuMex Starlite NMSU 94 1822 18.7 61.0
NuMex Vado NMSU 93 1552 16.8 52.0
RCX 6783 Sunseeds 89 1696 19.4 47.0
Mean   91 1338 15.4 54.6
LSD (5%)   NS 267*** 2.6*** 18.0***
NS, ***Nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.001, respectively.
zPercentage of marketable yield was calculated by dividing marketable bulb weight by total
   bulb weight.
yNumber of 50 lb sacks produced per acre was calculated by weighing the marketable bulbs
   per plot and adjusting the plot size to one acre.
xAverage bulb weight was calculated by dividing the marketable bulb weight by the number of
   marketable bulbs.
wThe percentage of bulbs with single centers (single growing point) was determined by cutting
   each bulb transversely at the vertical center and measuring the number of growing points that
   extended 0.5 in. beyond the bulb’s center.

Table 5. Bulb maturity, seedstalks, and disease evaluation of fall-seeded, late-maturing entries in 1999–2000 onion trial at Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M.

Entryz Seed
source
Harvest
datey
Maturity
datex
Seedstalks
(%)w
Pink
rootv
Pink
root (%)u
Fusariumt Fusarium
(%)s
NMSU 98-97 NMSU June 22 June 22 2.1 2.2 87.0 2.3 44.0
NMSU 99-24 NMSU June 14 June 14 2.8 2.7 100.0 1.7 18.0
NuMex Freedom NMSU June 22 June 22 1.5 3.2 99.0 2.2 24.0
NuMex Luna NMSU June 6 June 8 5.5 2.5 98.0 2.1 35.0
Mean     June 15 3.0 2.7 96.0 2.1 30.3
LSD (5%)     3*** NS 0.5** 4.3*** NS 16.9*
NS, *, **, ***Nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.05, P = 0.01, P = 0.001, respectively.
zAll entries have yellow skin, except NMSU 98-97 which has white skin.
yAn entry was harvested when all four replications had 80% of their tops down within the plot.
xA plot was considered matured when 80% of the tops were down.
wThe percentage of seedstalks was determined at harvest and calculated by dividing the number of plants
  with seedstalks by the total number of plants per plot.
vPink root rating. Root system of bulbs were rated based on a scale of 1 (no infected roots) to 9 (completely
   infected roots).
uPercentage of bulbs with pink root.
tFusarium basal plate rot rating. Cut basal plates were rated based on a scale of 1 (no disease tissue) to 9
  (70% or more of basal plate decayed).
sPercentage of bulbs with Fusarium basal plate rot (FBR). The basal plate of each bulb was cut transversely
  to reveal the presence or absence of FBR.

Table 6. Yield performance of fall-seeded, late-maturing entries in 1999–2000 onion trial at Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M.

Entry Seed
source
Marketable
yield (%)z
Sacks/acre
(number)y
Average bulb
weight (oz)x
Single
centers (%)w
NMSU 98-97 NMSU 75 841 10.8 74.0
NMSU 99-24 NMSU 94 1360 16.6 76.0
NuMex Freedom NMSU 78 1322 16.0 59.0
NuMex Luna NMSU 92 1450 17.9 40.0
Mean   85 1243 15.3 62.3
LSD (5%)   16* 298** 3.4** 21.1*
NS, *, ***Nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.05, P = 0.001, respectively.
zPercentage of marketable yield was calculated by dividing marketable bulb weight by total bulb weight.
yNumber of 50 lb sacks produced per acre was calculated by weighing the marketable bulbs per plot and
  adjusting the plot size to one acre.
xAverage bulb weight was calculated by dividing the marketable bulb weight by the number of marketable
  bulbs.
wThe percentage of bulbs with single centers (single growing point) was determined by cutting each bulb
  transversely at the vertical center and measuring the number of growing points that extended 0.5 in.
  beyond the bulb’s center.

Table 7. Bulb maturity and disease evaluation of transplanted entries in 1999–2000 onion trial at Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M.

Entryz Seed
source
Harvest
datey
Maturity
datex
Pink
rootw
Pink
root (%)v
Fusariumu Fusarium
(%)t
Candy Petoseed June 20 June 25 2.1 84.0 1.2 8.0
Cimarron Sunseeds June 14 June 14 2.4 95.0 1.4 11.0
NMSU 98-31 NMSU June 20 June 30 2.6 95.0 1.1 5.0
NMSU 98-97 NMSU June 20 June 25 2.6 98.0 1.4 20.0
NMSU 99-24 NMSU June 20 June 20 3.0 98.0 1.1 11.0
NuMex Bolo NMSU June 20 June 17 3.0 94.0 1.2 6.0
NuMex Casper NMSU June 20 June 23 2.0 81.0 1.1 8.0
NuMex Dulce NMSU June 20 June 22 2.7 99.0 1.1 7.0
NuMex Freedom NMSU June 20 June 22 3.3 100.0 1.1 5.0
NuMex Jose Fernandez NMSU June 20 June 30 3.1 100.0 1.2 18.0
NuMex Luna NMSU June 20 June 23 3.9 100.0 1.2 10.0
NuMex Mesa NMSU June 14 June 14 3.0 100.0 1.0 2.0
NuMex Starlite NMSU June 14 June 14 2.5 100.0 1.1 4.0
NuMex Vado NMSU June 20 June 20 3.4 100.0 1.2 8.0
Texas Grano 1015Y Asgrow June 20 June 24 3.1 99.0 1.1 5.0
Utopia Asgrow June 20 June 24 2.7 94.0 1.2 8.0
Mean     June 22 2.8 96.1 1.2 8.5
LSD (5%)     1*** 0.3*** 8.3*** NS NS
NS, ***Nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.001, respectively.
zAll entries have yellow skin, except NMSU 98-97 and ‘NuMex Casper’ which have white skin.
yAn entry was harvested when all four replications had 80% of their tops down within the plot.
xA plot was considered matured when 80% of the tops were down.
wPink root rating. Root system of bulbs were rated based on a scale of 1 (no infected roots) to 9 (completely
  infected roots).
vPercentage of bulbs with pink root.
uFusarium basal plate rot rating. Cut basal plates were rated based on a scale of 1 (no disease tissue) to 9
  (70% or more of basal plate decayed).
tPercentage of bulbs with Fusarium basal plate rot (FBR). The basal plate of each bulb was cut transversely
   to reveal the presence or absence of FBR.

Table 8. Yield performance of transplanted entries in 1999–2000 onion trial at Fabian Garcia Research Center in Las Cruces, N.M.

Entry Seed
source
Marketable
yield (%)z
Sacks/acre
(number)y
Average bulb
weight (oz)x
Single
centers (%)w
Candy Petoseed 85 643 7.0 46.0
Cimarron Sunseeds 100 1004 11.5 38.0
NMSU 98-31 NMSU 88 704 8.1 63.0
NMSU 98-97 NMSU 81 363 3.9 54.0
NMSU 99-24 NMSU 100 564 6.0 79.0
NuMex Bolo NMSU 95 812 8.6 74.0
NuMex Casper NMSU 97 870 8.9 79.0
NuMex Dulce NMSU 95 764 8.0 73.0
NuMex Freedom NMSU 90 839 9.2 92.0
NuMex Jose Fernandez NMSU 92 613 6.5 74.0
NuMex Luna NMSU 94 785 8.3 66.0
NuMex Mesa NMSU 95 561 6.4 41.0
NuMex Starlite NMSU 95 771 8.1 66.0
NuMex Vado NMSU 94 720 8.8 53.0
Texas Grano 1015g Asgrow 92 659 7.1 40.0
Utopia Asgrow 94 796 8.6 55.0
Mean   93 717 7.8 62.1
LSD (5%)   NS 143*** 1.2*** 14.0***
NS, ***Nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.001, respectively.
zPercentage of marketable yield was calculated by dividing marketable bulb weight by total
  bulb weight.
yNumber of 50 lb sacks produced per acre was calculated by weighing the marketable bulbs per plot and
  adjusting the plot size to one acre.
xAverage bulb weight was calculated by dividing the marketable bulb weight by the number
  of marketable bulbs.
wThe percentage of bulbs with single centers (single growing point) was determined by cutting each bulb
  transversely at the vertical center and measuring the number of growing points that extended 0.5 in.
  beyond the bulb’s center.

Back to Table of Contents


Literature Cited

Much of the information presented here was developed using resources provided by the USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS). The USDA’s World Wide Web sites (especially that of the ERS) are easily accessible and provide a wealth of information about the U.S. food and agricultural sector, international trade, and agriculture in other countries. Several USDA Web sites are listed below.

Corgan, J.N., M.M. Wall, C.S. Cramer, T. Sammis, B. Lewis, and J. Schroeder. 2000. Bulb onion culture and management. N.M. Coop. Exten. Serv. Circ. 563.

Cramer, C.S. 2000. New Mexico onion varieties. N.M. Coop. Exten. Serv. Circ. 567.

Cramer, C.S., J.N. Corgan, J.L. Mendoza, and M.M. Wall. 2000. 1998–1999 Onion variety trials at New Mexico State University. N.M. Agric. Expt. Stn. Res. Rpt. 739.

Cramer, C.S., J.L. Mendoza, and J.N. Corgan. 1998. Fall-seeded onion variety trials at New Mexico State University, p. 299–312. In: R.E. Voss (ed.). Proc. 1998 Natl. Onion (and Other Allium) Res. Conf. Veg. Res. Info. Ctr., Univ. Calif., Davis, Calif.

U.S. Dept. Of Agric. 2000. Vg 1-2 (00) b. Vegetables. 1999 Summary. Nat. Agr. Stat. Serv., U.S. Dep. Agr.

Back to Table of Contents


To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences on the World Wide Web at aces.nmsu.edu.

Contents of publications may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. For permission to use publications for other purposes, contact pubs@nmsu.edu or the authors listed on the publication.

New Mexico State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and educator. NMSU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.

Printed and electronically distributed June 2001, Las Cruces, NM.